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To control an outbreak of Shewanella algae and S. putrefaciens infections by identifying the risk factors for infection and transmission.
Matched case-control study.
A university-affiliated tertiary acute care hospital in Seoul, Republic of Korea, with approximately 1,600 beds.
From June 20, 2003, to January 16, 2004, a total of 31 case patients with Shewanella colonization or infection and 62 control patients were enrolled in the study.
Requirement to use single-use measuring cups and standard precautions (including hand washing before and after patient care and use of gloves).
S. algae or S. putrefaciens was isolated from blood, for 9 (29.0%) of 31 patients who acquired one of the organisms; from bile, for 8 (25.8%), and from ascitic fluid, for 8 (25.8%). The attack rate of this outbreak was 5.8% (31 patients infected or colonized, of 534 potentially exposed on ward A) and the pathogenicity of the two species together was 77.4% (24 patients infected, of 31 who acquired the pathogens). The estimated incubation period for Shewanella acquisition was 3–49 days. Using logistic analysis, we identified the following risk factors: presence of external drainage catheters in the hepatobiliary system (odds ratio [OR], 20; P < .001), presence of hepatobiliary disease (OR, 6.4; P < .001), admission to the emergency department of the hospital (OR, 2.9; P = .039), wound classification of “contaminated” or “dirty or infected” (OR, 16.5; P = .012), an American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or higher (OR, 8.0; P = .006), duration of stay in ward A (OR, 1.1; P < .001), and, for women, an age of 60–69 years (OR, 13.3; P = .028). A Shewanella isolate was recovered from the surface of a shared measuring cup, and 12 isolates of S. algae showed the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern.
This Shewanella outbreak had a single-source origin and spread by contact transmission via a contaminated measuring cup. Shewanella species are emerging as potentially serious human pathogens in hospitals and could be included in hospital infection surveillance systems.
We used an electronic speckle pattern interferometer (ESPI) for nondestructive measurement in-situ displacement fields in microsystems. A four-step phase-shift technique and magnifier with long working distance were adopted to increase displacement resolution to ∼10−2 μm and spatial resolution to ∼2 μm. A thermal vacuum chamber was designed to induce thermal treatments, including annealing. From the identification of the residual-stress-free state, we quantitatively modeled thermal strains/stress fields, relaxation stresses during annealing, and residual stress fields. Thermoelasticity theory was applied to model the relationship between the relaxation stresses and the displacements measured by ESPI during the evolution of the residual-stress-free state. We assessed the surface residual stress fields of indented bulk Cu; a Fe-Ni lead frame of 100 μm width; and 0.5 μm Au film. In the indented Cu, the normal and shear residual stresses around the indented point range from –1.7 GPa to 700 MPa and –800 MPa to 600 MPa, respectively, and the residual stress in the bending area of the Fe-Ni lead frame was estimated at 148 MPa and verified using beam-bending theory. In the Au film, tensile residual stresses are uniformly distributed from 500 MPa to 800 MPa as verified by X-ray diffraction.
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