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Elemental distributions in a magnetic multilayer system with the structure Si substrate/Ta/NiFe/Ru/CoFeB/Ru/NiFe were studied using atom probe tomography (APT) along different analysis directions. The distributions of Ru and B atoms, which require a high evaporation field, were strongly influenced by the APT analysis direction. In particular, B in the CoFeB layer appeared near the interface with the lower Ru layer when the analysis was anti-parallel to the film growth direction, while B atoms were observed at the other side of the CoFeB layer when the analysis was parallel to the film growth direction. Moreover, when the analysis was perpendicular to the film growth direction, a homogenous distribution of B atoms was found within the CoFeB layer. Owing to this B behavior, the underlying Ru layer was affected in both of these analysis directions. In APT measurements of such a multilayer system composed of a stack of different evaporation field materials, evaluation of the elemental distribution around interfaces should be performed from more than one analysis direction.
Fusion bead method produces homogeneous samples and is suitable for analysis using fundamental-parameter (FP) method in XRF. This report describes an FP method for analysis of non-oxide samples such as metals made into fusion beads. During the fusion process, all non-oxide elements in the sample are oxidized and gain-on-ignition (GOI) occurs. Volatile elements such as carbon do not remain in the sample as a result of fusion. This process is known as loss-on-ignition (LOI). To obtain reliable analysis results of fusion beads with the FP method, weight changes as a result of LOI and GOI must be reflected accurately in software calculation. The newly developed FP method, which takes these weight changes and dilution ratios into consideration, was able to yield accurate analysis results for ferroalloys FeSi, FeMn, and SiMn, some of which have high carbon content. This method is also applicable for sulfides and carbides.
The resistance switching in Pt/Co-O/Pt and Ta/Co-O/Pt has been investigated. Compared to Pt/Co-O/Pt, the reset current was more efficiently decreased in Ta/Co-O/Pt by using the load resistor in the forming process, indicating that the embedded resistance component with little parasitic capacitance effectively limits the current in the forming process. The reset process with the reset current lower than 0.15 mA was successfully demonstrated in Ta/Co-O/Pt. In addition, the high speed resistance switching by the voltage pulse with the pulse width of 20 ns was carried out, by investigating the pulse voltage height dependence of reset speed in Ta/Co-O/Pt.
The first dedicated space-VLBI project, the VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP), commenced with the successful launch of radio-astronomical satellite HALCA in 1997. Plans for a second generation space-VLBI project have been made by a working group over a number of years. This project, VSOP-2, has now been approved by Japan's space agency, JAXA, as the ASTRO-G project. It is planned for the spacecraft to observe in the 8, 22 and 43 GHz bands with cooled receivers for the two higher bands, which include important maser lines. It will have a maximum angular resolution at 43 GHz (7 mm) of about 40 micro-arcseconds. Although the VSOP project mainly observed continuum emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN), VSOP-2/ASTRO-G is expected to enable a variety of high angular resolution maser line observations.
The resistance random access memory is attracting much attention as a high-density and high-speed non-volatile memory, having large resistance switching ration and good affinity with the conventional CMOS technologies. We demonstrate the resistance switching in the NiO thin film without using Pt electrode.
A 66-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed as having a MALT-type lymphoma by histopathological examination. The lesion involved the vocal folds bilaterally, occupying the larynx and extending beyond it, as shown by computed tomography (CT). A course of radiation therapy with moderate doses was given. Six months later, a squamous cell carcinoma was found in the larynx and total laryngectomy was then performed. The patient remained well, without recurrence, 46 months after the operation, thus, MALT-type lymphoma may coexist with a squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.
The Sgr B2 region was mapped at 43 GHz (λ = 6.9 mm) with the 45m radio telescope of Nobeyama Radio Observatory. The observing parameters were: a) half power beamwidth 38″, b) pointing accuracy better than 10″, c) central frequency 43.0 GHz, d) bandwidth 500 MHz, and e) system noise temperature 400 K; and the observational aspects were: a) mapping with one polarization, b) liquid-nitrogen cooled load switching and c) reduction by NOD-2 programme. The obtained map is shown in Figure 1. Sgr B2 is resolved into several components which correspond to those by Martin and Downes (1972) and Downes et al. (1978). But the component at RA = 17h44m11.8s Dec. = −28°23′55″ at 1950 is not seen in Martin and Downes (1972) nor in the 5 GHz map of Downes et al. (1978), although the feature is seen in the 10.7 GHz map of Downes et al. (1978). The components derived from the map in Figure 1 by a morphological estimate are listed in Table 1. The total flux density of the region is 146J±30 Jy. The intensity calibration was made by observing NGC 7027.
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