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Sub-100nm-Thick Polycrystalline Bi4-xLaxTi3O12 (BLT) thin films have been formed on silicon substrates by sol-gel and spin-coating techniques. The analysis of X-ray reflectivity for the BLT/Si structure showed that the BLT film density was slightly lower than the ideal value and the interfacial layer was formed. By Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) it is confirmed that the formation of the interfacial layer was due to oxidation of Si. Clockwise hysteresis was observed in capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics for Au/BLT/p-Si structures at a frequency range between 1 MHz – 1 kHz. The frequency dispersion of the C-V curve was caused by a large amount of interface states at BLT/Si interface. As the film was crystallized at 550°C for 2 h the maximum interface state density was ∼3.4×1011 cm-2ev-1 at 1 kHz. Also, the negative gate-voltage shift of the C-V curve from the ideal curve and the gate-bias dependence of the flat-band voltage were observed, resulting in the presence of undesirable positive charges in the film and the electron injection to the traps near the BLT/Si interface. By post-annealing of the device at 400 °C in oxygen atmosphere the interface states (fast sates) were successfully reduced to a third of the initial value and also the positive charges were significantly diminished.
Polycrystalline Bi4-xLaxTi3O12 (BLT) thin films were formed on p-Si(100) substrates. Crystallization of the film was investigated quantitatively by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray reflection (XRR) analyses. The film was crystallized onto bismuth-oxide layered perovskite structure when annealing temperatures became higher than 550°C. The annealing time dependence of diffraction intensity and peak width indicated that grain growth occurred during crystallization. Moreover, it was shown that the average crystal dimension in the BLT film reached ca. 60 nm by 120-min annealing. That value is comparable to the B LT thickness. Film thickness and density were evaluated by XRR analysis. Simulation fitting showed that the BLT film was densified and that an interfacial layer was formed during crystallization. Pole figure measurements also suggested that the c-axis of B LT was preferentially oriented to nearly parallel the surface. Clockwise hysteresis loops were observed at room temperature in capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of Au/BLT/p-Si structures. The coercive field and the dielectric constant of 65 nm-thick BLT films crystallized at 550°C for 60 min were evaluated to be ca. 23 kV/cm and ca. 17, respectively.
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