To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Recently, many superflares on solar-type stars were discovered as white-light flares (WLFs). A correlation between the energies (E) and durations (t) of superflares is derived as t∝E0.39, and this can be theoretically explained by magnetic reconnection (t∝E1/3). In this study, we carried out a statistical research on 50 solar WLFs with SDO/HMI to examine the t-E relation. As a result, the t-E relation on solar WLFs (t∝E0.38) is quite similar stellar superflares, but the durations of stellar superflares are much shorter than those extrapolated from solar WLFs. We present the following two interpretations; (1) in solar flares, the cooling timescale of WL emission may be longer than the reconnection one, and the decay time can be determined by the cooling timescale; (2) the distribution can be understood by applying a scaling law t∝E1/3B−5/3 derived from the magnetic reconnection theory.
With decreases in Arctic sea-ice extent in recent years, the Northern Sea Route (NSR) and Northwest Passage (NWP), which we collectively term the Arctic Sea Route (ASR), have become open for navigation more frequently. The ASR connects the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, with the NSR following the Siberian coast, and the NWP following the north coast of North America. This study evaluated long-term ice concentrations along both routes using microwave data from the SMMR and SSM/I sensors, and analyzed details using data from the AMSR-E passive microwave sensor. The data were used to determine the number of navigable days according to various sea-ice concentrations. Analysis of SMMR and SSM/I data showed a remarkably large number of navigable days on the NSR since 1995. For the NWP, the low resolution of the SMMR and SSM/I data for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago made analysis difficult, but long-term change in the sea-ice distribution on the ASR was indicated. Analysis of the AMSR-E microwave sensor data revealed navigable days along the NSR in 2002 and from 2005 to 2009 (except 2007). For navigation purposes, the sea-ice decrease in specific regions is important, as well as the decrease across the Arctic Ocean as a whole. For the NWP, numerous navigable days were identified in the period 2006–08.
We analyze sea-ice conditions along seven segments of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) over four time periods. We researched sea ice by segment, using data from the satellite microwave sensors SMMR, SSM/I and AMSR-E. The four analysis periods (periods I–IV: 1980–88, 1989–2001, 2002–06 and 2007–11, respectively) were determined based on changes in the extent of minimum sea ice throughout the Arctic Ocean. Sea ice showed a decreasing tendency from period I to period IV. For example, sea-ice area in period IV decreased compared to previous periods in the eastern East Siberian Sea and around Severnaya Zemlya, areas that had very high sea-ice concentrations in period I. Sea-ice area in the eastern East Siberian Sea decreased sharply during period III, whereas the Severnaya Zemlya area maintained a high ice concentration. In period IV, sea-ice coverage around Severnaya Zemlya was low, although it remained at 25% in the area east of Severnaya Zemlya, which is a key area for navigation. The proportion of multi-year (MY) ice drastically decreased after winter 2002, and only a small amount of MY ice existed in the winters of 2003–06. MY ice disappeared from the eastern East Siberian Sea after 2007. On the other hand, around Severnaya Zemlya the proportion of MY ice showed cyclic ups and downs between 1997 and 2008. Thus, the persistence of various types of sea ice varies according to region. The persistence of various types of sea ice around Severnaya Zemlya also varied each year.
A surface-water Δ14C record of AD 1948–1999 in the tropical South China Sea (SCS) has been reconstructed from accelerator mass spectrometric radiocarbon measurements of annual bands of a Pontes coral collected from Con Dao Island, Vietnam. Results gave the following Δ14C time series: a steady state of −47.8 ± 2.8‰ (mean ± SD, n = 8) during 1948–1955 (i.e. in the pre-bomb period); a sharp increase during 1956–1966; a gradual increase during 1967–1973; a relatively high maximum value of ∼174‰ in 1973; and a gradual decrease for the following period to ∼86‰ in 1999. This Δ14C record having a sharp increase and a relatively high peak is similar to the records of subtropical corals (latitudes 21–27°) and is distinctly different from the records of equatorial/tropical corals (latitudes <10°), although our coral sample was collected from an equatorial/tropical region (8°39′N, 106°33′E). This can be explained by the geographic, oceanographic, and climatic setting of our study site. The SCS is a semi-enclosed marginal sea in the far western tropical Pacific and is little influenced by equatorial upwelling or related ocean currents. Our study site is located in the southwestern SCS, where an enormous submerged plain (the Sunda Shelf) spreads out with very shallow waters (mean depth <100 m). Furthermore, in the SCS, the East Asian monsoon (a strong, seasonally reversing wind system) enhances air-sea gas exchange especially in the mainland coastal waters, including our study site. Such semi-enclosed shallow waters with enhanced ventilation were probably very sensitive to the atmospheric nuclear explosions in the late 1950s and early 1960s and caused the sharp increase and high peak in the coral Δ14C record. Our coral Δ14C values in the southwestern SCS are significantly higher than the values in the northwestern SCS (Xisha Islands), which seems to suggest that meridional mixing of surface waters is not active in the SCS and that the open-ocean water intruding into the northern SCS (i.e. the Kuroshio intrusion) has only a limited influence on the southern SCS.
We measured radiocarbon in an annually-banded coral core collected from Con Dao Island, Vietnam, 90 km from the mouth of the Mekong River, and estimated the regional correction of the marine reservoir age (ΔR value). Twelve samples were continuously taken from the annual bands (AD 1949–1960) which were clearly identified under UV light (∼352 nm) as well as by X-radiography. The 14C content of the samples was determined using an accelerator mass spectrometer at the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan. Results provide a Δ14C time series showing a relatively steady value of −48.6 ± 4.6‰ for the period of 1949–1955 and an abrupt increase starting from 1956 that indicates a quick response to the atmospheric testing of nuclear bombs. Using the prebomb 14C data, the ΔR value in the south of Vietnam is estimated to be −74 ± 39 yr.
A coral radiocarbon (Δ14C) investigation with a high time-resolution is crucial for reconstructing secular and seasonal Δ14C changes in the surface seawater which potentially reflect ocean circulations and dynamic ocean-atmosphere interactions. The Δ14C values of a modern coral (Porites sp.) from Kikai Island, southern Japan, in the subtropical northwestern Pacific, were determined for the period of 1991-1998 at a monthly resolution. A coral Δ14C time series for the 8 yr indicated seasonal cycles superimposed on a secular decreasing trend of 3.8 per yr. The seasonal amplitude of the coral Δ14C was about 18 on the average, and the minimum Δ14C was observed in late spring and summer. The Δ14C changes were tentatively explained by horizontal oceanic advections around Kikai Island or over the wide range of the equatorial and sub-equatorial Pacific.
SIS receivers have higher sensitivity than Schottky diode receivers. The SIS mixer, however, must be cooled at 4 K level, and either a GM (Gifford-McMahon) + JT (Joule- Thomson) refrigerator or liquid helium is used. Therefore, SIS receivers are usually much larger and heavier than Schottky diode receivers which are usually cooled by a GM refrigerator only.
Kuriyama et al. developed a GM refrigerator using Er3Ni as a regenerator material which achieved to cool at 4 K level.
In this work, the SIS receiver was constructed and investigated, which was cooled below 4 K by the GM refrigerator with Er3Ni. It resulted in the SIS receiver which was about the same size and weight as a usual Schottky diode receiver.
Low-cost, compact, and accurate systems for in-home rehabilitation are needed in aging, aged, and hyper-aged groups. In this study, we developed an in-home rehabilitation system for patients with balance disorders by providing visual feedback of postural information in real-time. Our system measures the user's whole body motion and the center of pressure (COP) using a Kinect and Wii Balance Board (WBB). The accuracy of body motion for estimating the anterior folding and lateral bending angles was validated experimentally by comparing the estimates with the angles given by an optical motion capture system. Additional experiments showed that the COP has a small correlation coefficient with the angles, suggesting that WBB is necessary for measuring the COP.
We searched for superflares on solar-type stars using the Kepler short-cadence (1-min sampling) data in order to detect superflares with short duration. We found 187 superflares on 23 solar-type stars whose bolometric energy ranges from the order of 1032 erg to 1036 erg. Using these new data combined with the results from the data with 30-min sampling, we found the occurrence frequency (dN/dE) of superflares as a function of flare energy (E) shows the power-law distribution (dN/dE ∝ E−α) with α=1.5 for 1033 < E < 1036 erg. The upper limit of energy released by superflares is basically comparable to a fraction of the magnetic energy stored near starspots which is estimated from the amplitude of brightness variations. We also found that the duration of superflares (τ) increases with the flare energy (E) as τ ∝ E0.39±0.03. This can be explained if we assume the time-scale of flares is determined by the Alfvén time.
We carried out spectroscopic observations with Subaru/HDS of 50 solar-type superflare stars found from Kepler data. More than half (34 stars) of the target stars show no evidence of the binary system, and we confirmed atmospheric parameters of these stars are roughly in the range of solar-type stars.
We then conducted the detailed analyses for these 34 stars. First, the value of the “v sin i” (projected rotational velocity) measured from spectroscopic results is consistent with the rotational velocity estimated from the brightness variation. Second, there is a correlation between the amplitude of the brightness variation and the intensity of Ca II IR triplet line. All the targets expected to have large starspots because of their large amplitude of the brightness variation show high chromospheric activities compared with the Sun. These results support that the brightness variation of superflare stars is explained by the rotation of a star with large starspots.
The salp Thalia rhomboides is distributed in the shallow depths during the day, and is thus at increased risk of predation by visual predators and from the damaging effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation compared with species distributed in deeper layers in the daytime. The integument (tunic) of T. rhomboides may have adaptive optical properties, but the absorption spectra of the unfixed tunic demonstrate that the tunic transmits UV as well as visible light, indicating that the tunic is not an effective barrier against UV radiation. Ultrastructural observation revealed that the surface of the tunic cuticle is covered in a nipple array consisting of hemispherical protuberances approximately 40 and 30 nm in diameter in solitary and aggregate zooids, respectively. Simulation of light reflection of a nipple array using rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) indicated that the reflection is slightly lower for the nipple array than for a flat surface at high angles of incidence (θ > 80°). This result supports the idea that the nipple array serves to make the salp less visible. The simulation also indicated that the height and distribution of the salp nipple array do not have an optimal structure for causing an antireflection effect. A mechanical restriction might exist on the structures, and the nipple array could also serve another function. The size and distribution of nipples may be controlled by the need to meet the complex requirements of multiple essential functions.
The aim of the study was to develop the Japanese versions of Executive Interview (J-EXIT25) and Executive Clock Drawing Task (J-CLOX) and to evaluate the aspects of executive function that these two tests will be examining.
The concurrent validity and reliability of J-EXIT25 and J-CLOX were first examined in all participants (n = 201). Next, the relationship between the two tests was examined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC), correlation, and regression analyses in healthy participants (n = 45) and participants with mild cognitive impairment (n = 36) and dementia (n = 95).
Satisfactory concurrent validity and reliability of J-EXIT25 and J-CLOX were shown. ROC analysis indicated that J-EXIT25 and J-CLOX1 were superior to the Frontal Assessment Battery, but inferior to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), in discriminating between non-dementia and dementia. J-EXIT25, J-CLOX1, and J-CLOX2 scores were significantly correlated with age, scores on the MMSE, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS), and care level. In stepwise regression analyses of IADL scores, MMSE and J-EXIT25 were significantly independent predictors in men, and MMSE, age, and J-CLOX1 were significantly independent predictors in women. J-EXIT25, MMSE, and J-CLOX1 were significantly independent predictors in stepwise regression analysis of PSMS scores, and J-EXIT25 was the only significantly independent predictor in stepwise regression analysis of care level.
J-EXIT25 and J-CLOX are valid and reliable instruments for assessment of executive function in older people. The present results suggest that these tests have common and distinct psychometric properties in the assessment of executive function.
We present the results of an extensive survey of superflares on late-type stars (G, K, and M-type main sequence stars) using the Kepler satellite data. Wefound about 6,800 superflares on late-type stars from the data of about 120,000 stars observed over 500 days. The total bolometric energy of superflares in oursample ranges from 1032 erg to 1036 erg. Our data suggest that the occurrencefrequency of superflares depends on the surface temperature and the rotationperiod of stars. Superflares on M-type stars occur about 10-100 times morefrequently than those on G-type stars. Our results suggest that the average frequency ofsuperflares releasing 1034–1035 erg of energy (100-1,000 times larger than the largestsolar flares) on M-type stars and Sun-like stars is once in 10 years and once in a few thousand years respectively.
Chemical conditions and mass transport properties of engineered barrier systems in TRU waste facilities would change with time due to the interaction of cement/bentonite materials. (‘TRU waste’ is one of categories of the radioactive wastes and contains a significant amount of alpha-emitting transuranic nuclides. In some countries, these wastes are classified into the Intermediate Level Waste (ILW).) Previous numerical model analyses to assess the long-term performance of engineered barrier systems in TRU waste repositories predicted to form Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) species at the interface between the cementitious and bentonite materials. If C-S-H precipitates in the bentonite side of the boundary, mass transport in the bentonite buffer decreases and mineralogical alterations are expected to be restricted for a long period. The evidence of C-S-H precipitation in the bentonite side, however, still has not been identified in the former experimental studies. To improve the reliability of numerical analyses, immersion experiments were performed using contact samples of cementitious and bentonite materials, and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis was carried out to detect C-S-H precipitation at the contacting interface. Precipitation of C-S-H was confirmed from the obtained XAFS spectra. This result is one of the evidences to show the validity of the current numerical model analyses, which suggests that the bentonite buffer performance as an engineered barrier would be kept over a long period.
Magnetism in the Zn-Mg-Ho icosahedral quasicrystal has been studied by neutron scattering. Powder samples of the icosahedral and related crystalline phases were reexamined to clarify the origin of the previously-reported long-range magnetic order [Charrier et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 (1997) 4637]. The long range order was found to originate from the related crystalline phase, which is a contaminant in the previously-used samples. Whereas for high-quality icosahedral phase, we could detect only magnetic diffuse scattering. This apparently shows the absence of the long range order in the icosahedral phase. The diffuse scattering was studied in detail by using a single quasicrystalline sample. It was found that the diffuse scattering appears as satellites from intense nuclear Bragg reflections. This indicates that corresponding spin correlations can be regarded as developed between spins on the six-dimensional virtual hypercubic lattice. A magnetic modulation vector for the correlations is proposed.
In most cases, hot metal dephosphorization slag is saturated with
dicalcium-silicate that forms complete solid solution with tricalciumphosphate;
the partition ratio of phosphorous between C2S and
liquid slag is large. In order to utilize the effect of C2S phase for the
improvement of reaction efficiency, the optimum route of the slag
composition change during dephosphorization should be clarified.
The results of the fundamental experiments about the phosphorous
partition between C2S and liquid slag from the viewpoints of equilibrium
and kinetics are reported.
Nanoparticles of iron carbides (Fe3C and χ-Fe2.5C) wrapped in multilayered graphitic sheets were synthesized by a developed method in which an electric plasma was generated in an ultrasonic cavitation field containing thousands of tiny activated bubbles in liquid ethanol. Annealing changed the phase composition, structure, and size of the carbon nanocapsules as most of the iron carbides decomposed into the α-Fe phase and graphite. Powder samples annealed at 873 and 973 K have maximal saturation magnetization values equal to 80.6 and 83.4 A m2/kg, respectively, which is approximately 40% of the value of bulk iron. Using this method, it will be possible to synthesize nanoparticles of a metal of choice encapsulated by graphite shells by selecting appropriate materials for the ultrasonic tip and electrodes.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.