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This study establishes the chronological framework of the sedimentary sequence deposited Dead Sea, ICDP 5017-1, Radiocarbon chronology during the past 50 ka at the deepest part of the Dead Sea (the ICDP 5017-1 site), which was recovered by the Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project (DSDDP) under the auspices of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The age-depth model is constructed using 38 14C dates of terrestrial plant remains in a composite 150-m-long profile, generated by anchoring 32 marker layers identified in five cores. The sedimentary records at the ICDP 5017-1 site fills gaps in those obtained from the exposed sections at the high margins of the lake, particularly in times of lake-level retreat, and allows for a high-resolution comparison between the lake’s margins and deepest floor.
We have obtained a high-resolution sedimentary record covering the last 6500 yr from a maar in Cheju Island, Korea, in order to reconstruct the history of variations in the eolian quartz flux (EQF) and hence Asian dust. The long-term variation of EQF reveals three intervals: a period of high EQF (4000–2000 cal yr B.P.) and two periods of low EQF (6500–4000 cal yr B.P. and 2000 cal yr B.P. to present), which have been affected by the East Asian monsoon due to insolation change and the cold air activity in high latitudes correlated with polar high-pressure systems. This long-term variation is superimposed by millennial- and centennial-scale fluctuations with periodicities of 1137, 739, 214, 162, 137, 127, and 111 yr, implying drier conditions in the source areas in China. The detrended EQF record correlates visually and statistically (cross-spectral analysis) with the atmospheric Δ14C record (solar proxy). The centennial-scale variability in EQF may be affected by the solar activity through the Sun–East Asian monsoon linkage.
The varved sediment profile of Lake Suigetsu, central Japan, offers an ideal opportunity from which to derive a terrestrial record of atmospheric radiocarbon across the entire range of the 14C dating method. Previous work by Kitagawa and van der Plicht (1998a,b, 2000) provided such a data set; however, problems with the varve-based age scale of their SG93 sediment core precluded the use of this data set for 14C calibration purposes. Lake Suigetsu was re-cored in summer 2006, with the retrieval of overlapping sediment cores from 4 parallel boreholes enabling complete recovery of the sediment profile for the present “Suigetsu Varves 2006” project (Nakagawa et al. 2012). Over 550 14C determinations have been obtained from terrestrial plant macrofossils picked from the latter SG06 composite sediment core, which, coupled with the core's independent varve chronology, provides the only non-reservoir-corrected 14C calibration data set across the 14C dating range.
Here, physical matching of archive U-channel sediment from SG93 to the continuous SG06 sediment profile is presented. We show the excellent agreement between the respective projects' 14C data sets, allowing the integration of 243 14C determinations from the original SG93 project into a composite Lake Suigetsu 14C calibration data set comprising 808 individual 14C determinations, spanning the last 52,800 cal yr.
The Kawagodaira Volcano is located on the northwest slope of Amagi Volcano on the Izu Peninsula of central Japan. The fine pumice that erupted from Kawagodaira Volcano is widely distributed in the central and western parts of the Japanese mainland. Here, we report an accurate eruption age determined by radiocarbon wiggle-matching of a Japanese cedar timber excavated from the pyroclastic deposit at the pumice flow terminal of Kawagodaira Volcano. The 14C wiggle-match estimate for the Kawagodaira Volcano eruption is 1210–1187 cal BC (95.4% confidence level).
A surface-water Δ14C record of AD 1948–1999 in the tropical South China Sea (SCS) has been reconstructed from accelerator mass spectrometric radiocarbon measurements of annual bands of a Pontes coral collected from Con Dao Island, Vietnam. Results gave the following Δ14C time series: a steady state of −47.8 ± 2.8‰ (mean ± SD, n = 8) during 1948–1955 (i.e. in the pre-bomb period); a sharp increase during 1956–1966; a gradual increase during 1967–1973; a relatively high maximum value of ∼174‰ in 1973; and a gradual decrease for the following period to ∼86‰ in 1999. This Δ14C record having a sharp increase and a relatively high peak is similar to the records of subtropical corals (latitudes 21–27°) and is distinctly different from the records of equatorial/tropical corals (latitudes <10°), although our coral sample was collected from an equatorial/tropical region (8°39′N, 106°33′E). This can be explained by the geographic, oceanographic, and climatic setting of our study site. The SCS is a semi-enclosed marginal sea in the far western tropical Pacific and is little influenced by equatorial upwelling or related ocean currents. Our study site is located in the southwestern SCS, where an enormous submerged plain (the Sunda Shelf) spreads out with very shallow waters (mean depth <100 m). Furthermore, in the SCS, the East Asian monsoon (a strong, seasonally reversing wind system) enhances air-sea gas exchange especially in the mainland coastal waters, including our study site. Such semi-enclosed shallow waters with enhanced ventilation were probably very sensitive to the atmospheric nuclear explosions in the late 1950s and early 1960s and caused the sharp increase and high peak in the coral Δ14C record. Our coral Δ14C values in the southwestern SCS are significantly higher than the values in the northwestern SCS (Xisha Islands), which seems to suggest that meridional mixing of surface waters is not active in the SCS and that the open-ocean water intruding into the northern SCS (i.e. the Kuroshio intrusion) has only a limited influence on the southern SCS.
We measured radiocarbon in an annually-banded coral core collected from Con Dao Island, Vietnam, 90 km from the mouth of the Mekong River, and estimated the regional correction of the marine reservoir age (ΔR value). Twelve samples were continuously taken from the annual bands (AD 1949–1960) which were clearly identified under UV light (∼352 nm) as well as by X-radiography. The 14C content of the samples was determined using an accelerator mass spectrometer at the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan. Results provide a Δ14C time series showing a relatively steady value of −48.6 ± 4.6‰ for the period of 1949–1955 and an abrupt increase starting from 1956 that indicates a quick response to the atmospheric testing of nuclear bombs. Using the prebomb 14C data, the ΔR value in the south of Vietnam is estimated to be −74 ± 39 yr.
The evolution of the outer lake of Hwajinpo Lagoon in Korea has been reconstructed using environmental proxies (lithologic, geochemical, and fossil data) with a chronology established using 7 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates. Grain size, water content, and X-ray analyses from the core of outer coastal lakes (HJ99) were used to reconstruct sedimentary environments by using total organic carbon, C/N, S, and C/S chemical proxies. Assemblages of mollusc remains also provided paleoenvironmental information. The environmental changes of the outer lake of Hwajinpo Lagoon can be divided into 6 depositional phases. The basin of the Hwajinpo was exposed and underwent a weathering process before the Holocene period. The muddy sand layer on the weathered bedrock indicated an estuarine system about 6000 BP. The laminated layer implies that the lagoonal system was anoxic between about 5500–2800 BP. The marl layer implies a relatively oxic lagoonal condition with mollusc presence about 2500 B P. The layer of very low sulfur content indicates a freshwater lake system isolated by a sand barrier about 1700 BP. Beginning about 1000 B P, the river system deposits progress progradation on the marl layer. Two erosional landforms could be related with a high standing sea level span during Holocene. These high-stands are dated at 5700 BP and 2200 BP and are supposed to have formed erosional landforms of about 1.6 amsl and 0.8 amsl, respectively. Environmental changes of the outer lake of Hwajinpo Lagoon are considered due mainly to the lake- and sea-level fluctuation during Holocene.
This paper presents the variation of radiocarbon content in annual tree rings for the period AD 1413–1553, which includes the Spoerer Minimum period (AD 1415–1534). Since the variation of the production rate of 14C is strongly related to solar activity, the variation of 14C content in annual tree rings gives us information on the characteristics of variation of solar activity. We have studied solar activity during the grand solar minima, focusing especially on the stability of the 11-yr cycle. The minima are determined to have been almost free of sunspots. Our results, however, have revealed quite remarkably the existence of the 11-yr cycle for most of the time during the Spoerer Minimum. The 11-yr variation weakened around AD 1460–1510, suggesting that solar activity might have been strongly suppressed during these 50 yr.
A coral radiocarbon (Δ14C) investigation with a high time-resolution is crucial for reconstructing secular and seasonal Δ14C changes in the surface seawater which potentially reflect ocean circulations and dynamic ocean-atmosphere interactions. The Δ14C values of a modern coral (Porites sp.) from Kikai Island, southern Japan, in the subtropical northwestern Pacific, were determined for the period of 1991-1998 at a monthly resolution. A coral Δ14C time series for the 8 yr indicated seasonal cycles superimposed on a secular decreasing trend of 3.8 per yr. The seasonal amplitude of the coral Δ14C was about 18 on the average, and the minimum Δ14C was observed in late spring and summer. The Δ14C changes were tentatively explained by horizontal oceanic advections around Kikai Island or over the wide range of the equatorial and sub-equatorial Pacific.
We assessed marine reservoir age R(t) for the costal area of the northwest Pacific using radiocarbon measurements of the annually banded coral core (Porites sp) collected on Ishigaki Island in southern Japan. Reservoir age R(t) during the early 1900s at the Pacific coast of Ishigaki Island ranged between 290 and 455 14C yr, with a weighted mean of 355 ± 25 14C yr (n=5, ±1 σ). The regional-specific ΔR, defined as 14C age difference of regional and world ocean surface layer, was 35 ± 25 14C yr (n=5, ±1σ) on average and increased between 1900 and 1950.
In comparison with windward coral reefs, the facies and evolution of leeward coral reefs has been discussed to a lesser extent. By accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) carbon-14 dating of coral specimens collected from the trench excavated across a modern coral reef during a fishery port repair, we revealed the internal facies and Holocene evolution of a leeward reef in Ishigaki Island, Ryukyu Islands, southwest Japan. The reef facies can be split into three facies: the tabular Acropora framework facies, the tabular Acropora reworked facies, and the unconsolidated bioclast facies. The tabular Acropora reworked facies first formed a ridge by 3500 BR Then, the tabular Acropora framework facies grew both upward and seaward. The accumulation rates of the tabular Acropora framework facies ranged from 2.2 to 8.3 m/ka. Thus, the reef framework facies and accumulation rates of this leeward reef is similar to those of windward reefs, although the age of the reef top is younger than that of windward reefs.
This paper presents an updated atmospheric radiocarbon calibration from annually laminated (varved) sediments from Lake Suigetsu (LS), central Japan. As presented earlier, the LS varved sediments can be used to extend the radiocarbon time scale beyond the tree ring calibration range that reaches 11,900 cal BP. We have increased the density of 14C measurements for terrestrial macrofossils from the same core analyzed previously. The combined data set now consists of 333 measurements, and is compared with other calibration data.
A sequence of annually laminated sediments is a potential tool for calibrating the radiocarbon time scale beyond the range of the absolute tree-ring calibration (11 ka). We performed accelerator mass spectrometric (AMS) 14C measurements on >250 terrestrial macrofossil samples from a 40,000-yr varve sequence from Lake Suigetsu, Japan. The results yield the first calibration curve for the total range of the 14C dating method.
We collected pore waters using an in situ pore water-squeezer for a submersible Shinkai 2000 at six depths beneath the sediment surface within a deep-sea “cold seep” giant clam community off Hatsushima Island, Sagami Bay, Japan. A box core sample was also collected ca. 4.5 km east of the community and pore waters were separated. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was extracted and purified in a vacuum line and 14C concentration was determined with a Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer at Nagoya University after conversion to graphite targets using a batch Fe-catalytic hydrogen reduction method. ∆14C values decreased with increasing depth to −938‰ at the sulfate concentration minimum. This indicates that methane used for the active reduction of sulfate and formation of hydrogen sulfide, which is used by symbiotic chemoautotrophic bacteria in gills of the giant clams, is almost dead and is likely supplied from the deep. ∆14C values of DIC vary linearly with δ13C values along a mixing line between that in the bottom water and that produced by the oxidation of dead methane. The δ13C value of DIC oxidized from dead methane is estimated to be ca. −45‰.
We made accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C measurements on terrestrial macrofossils from the Late Pleistocene/Holocene of the annually laminated sediments of Lake Suigetsu (central Japan). The AMS 14C dates of terrestrial macrofossils showed agreement between varve counting years and calibrated ages (tree rings and U/Th on coral) in the interval of 10.5 and ca. 11.5 ka cal bp. Beyond 11.5 ka cal bp, the age difference between 14C and varve counting years gradually diminish, contradicting published data on corals dated by U/Th and 14C.
We have developed a method of graphitization from CO2 samples for accurate 14C measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry. Our batch method, using a sealed Vycor tube, reduces the risk of contamination during graphitization and makes it possible to prepare many samples in a short time (typically 20 samples per day).
In order to measure the concentrations of anthropogenically influenced gases in the stratosphere, we have collected air samples from the lower stratosphere since 1985, by a balloon-borne cryogenic sampling method, developed at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). Air samples of ≃16 liters at STP were collected in the stratosphere at altitudes from 18.6 to 30.4 km, over the northeastern part of Japan (39.5°N, 139–142°E), on 1 September 1989. We conducted 14C analyses to study the vertical and horizontal air-mass movement in the stratosphere, and to investigate the air transport mechanism between troposphere and stratosphere. Carbon dioxide (containing a few mg carbon) was separated cryogenically from the air samples, and the 14C concentration of the CO2 was measured by a Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer, using Fe-graphite targets prepared by reducing CO2 on Fe-powder with hydrogen in a Vycor tube at 650°. The 14C concentrations, expressed as Δ14C, of CO2 were 267–309‰ at altitudes of 21–30 km, and 134‰ at 19–20 km. The Δ14C values at 21–30 km were higher than those of the current tropospheric CO2, of around 80–200‰. The observed 14C concentrations, higher in the stratosphere than the troposphere, seem to be explained by large bomb-produced 14C inventories and/or high 14C production by cosmic rays, as well as weak vertical mixing of air masses in the stratosphere.
Rapid thermal processing (RTP) using halogen lamps for a Si-doped molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) n-GaAs layers was investigated by deep level transient spectroscopy. RTP was performed at 700°C, 800°C and 900°C for 6 s. Two electron traps NI ( Ec-0.5-0.7eV) and EL2 (Ec - 0.82 eV) are produced by RTP at 800 and 900°C.The peculiar spatial variations of the Nl and EL2 concentration across the MBE GaAs films are observed. The larger concentrations of the trap N1 and EL2 are observed near the edge of the samples, and the minima of N1 and EL2 concentration lie between the center and the edge of the sample. It seems that these spatial variations of N1 and EL2 concentration are consistent with that of the thermal stress induced by RTP. Furthermore, the EL2 concentration near the edge of the sample is suppressed by the contact with the GaAs pieces on the edge around the sample during RTP.
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