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Resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in red wine and various plants, has been reported to up-regulate the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). However, this effect was neither long term in nature nor physiologically relevant at the concentration of resveratrol studied. In the present study, we investigated the effects of repeated treatments with a lower concentration of resveratrol on the expression of genes in HUVEC. The expression levels of eNOS and silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) were up-regulated in HUVEC by repeated treatments with 1 μm-resveratrol for 6 d, but not with fenofibrate. Moreover, resveratrol treatment increased the expression of autophagy-regulated genes such as γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor-associated protein (GABARAP), microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B) and autophagy-related protein 3 (ATG3), the radical scavenger activity-related metallothionein-1X (MT1X) gene and the anti-inflammatory activity-related annexin A2 (ANXA) gene. In addition, resveratrol treatment down-regulated the expression of the cell-cycle checkpoint control RAD9 homologue B (RAD9B) gene. These results indicate the beneficial effects of resveratrol on the cardiovascular system.
Pulsed laser irradiation at 248 nm can ablate Si atoms from an Si wafer. The mechanism of this photoablation has been examined by laser-induced fluorescence analysis of the Si products. The Si atoms are measured to leave the wafer surface with averaged translational energy of 2.5 kcal/mol. The distribution of translational energy is well described by the theoretical model for non-cascade ablation processes.
Limited egg consumption is often recommended to reduce serum cholesterol concentration for the prevention of CHD. We examined the association of egg consumption and total cholesterol concentration with the risk of CHD. A total of 90 735 subjects (19 856 men and 21 408 women, aged 40–59 years in cohort I; 23 463 men and 26 008 women, aged 40–69 years in cohort II) were followed from 1990–4 to the end of 2001 under the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study. Total cholesterol was obtained in 36 % of the subjects. Men and women were combined for the analyses. The subjects were categorised into four groups according to egg consumption. Subjects with total cholesterol ≥2200 mg/l were less frequent in frequent egg consumption groups in both cohorts (trend P<0·0001). Subjects with <1 d/week of egg consumption were more likely to avoid a cholesterol-rich diet. Egg consumption was not associated with the risk of CHD, although total cholesterol was significantly related to the risk of CHD. The multivariate hazard ratio of CHD in subjects with total cholesterol ≥2400 v. <1800 mg/l was 2·17 (95 % CI 1·22, 3·85; trend P=0·0018). In conclusion, eating eggs more frequently, up to almost daily, was not associated with an increase in CHD incidence for middle-aged Japanese men and women. Subjects with hypercholesterolaemia were less frequently in frequent egg consumption groups, probably because they avoided eating eggs.
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