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Little is known about the dynamics of marine food chains spanning primary to higher trophic levels on centennial and longer timescales, especially where the supply of dissolved iron limits primary productivity. To elucidate the long-term dynamics of biological productivity in the Coastal Oyashio (CO), which is a major pathway for transporting dissolved iron into the western North Pacific from winter to spring, we reconstructed the lower trophic level productivity over the last 3000 years in the CO. Our results demonstrate that the concentrations and mass accumulation rates of both Chl-a (chlorophyll a and its derivatives) and biogenic opal used as proxies of primary productivity, and steryl chlorin esters (SCEs) used as that of zooplankton productivity, show a millennial-scale increasing trend and centennial-scale variability beginning ca. AD 400. SCEs were positively correlated with Chl-a, indicating that changes in zooplankton productivity were induced by bottom-up control of primary productivity. The Chl-a and SCEs showed synchronous centennial-scale patterns with a relative abundance of sea-ice-associated diatom species transported by CO, and with a ventilation index in the Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water. This synchronous pattern indicates that lower trophic-level productivity during the spring bloom responded to the intensity of iron-replete CO.
We examined the potential application of CuIn1-xGaxSe1-ySy (CIGS) film for visible light image sensors. CIGS chalcopyrite semiconductors, which are representative of high efficiency thin film solar cells, have both a high absorption coefficient and high quantum efficiency. However, their dark current is too high for image sensors. In this study, we applied gallium oxide (Ga2O3) as a hole-blocking layer for CIGS thin film to reduce the dark current. The dark current of this hetero-junction was 10-9 A/cm2 at less than 7 V. Moreover, an avalanche multiplication phenomenon was observed at an applied voltage of over 8 V. However, this structure had sensitivity only in the ultraviolet light region due to the much lower carrier density of the Ga2O3 layer. We therefore used a tin-doped Ga2O3 (Ga2O3:Sn) layer deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) for the n-type layer to increase the carrier density. The sensitivity of the visible region was observed in the Ga2O3:Sn/CIGS hetero-junction. We also investigated the influence of the laser frequency of the PLD on the transmittance of Ga2O3:Sn and the quantum efficiency of this hetero-junction. Ga2O3:Sn film deposited at a 0.1-Hz laser repetition rate had higher transmittance than at a 10-Hz repetition rate. The Ga2O3:Sn/CIGS hetero-junction also had a higher quantum efficiency with the lower rate (50%) than with the higher rate (30%).
We report the kinetic analysis of radicals on fungal spores of Penicillium digitatum interacted with charged-neutral oxygen species (O*) generated plasma discharge using real time in situ electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. The ESR signal from the spores was observed at a g-value of around 2.004 with a line width of approximately 5G. We have successfully obtained information regarding the reaction mechanism with free radicals and realtime in situ ESR has proven to be a useful method to elucidate plasma-induced surface reactions on biological specimens
In the present study, we investigated the effects of various concentrations of cysteine (0.0, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 mM) added to the maturation medium on nuclear maturation and subsequent embryonic development of bovine oocytes exposed to heat stress (HS: set at 39.5 °C for 5 h, 40.0 °C for 5 h, 40.5 °C for 6 h, and 40.0 °C for 4 h versus 38.5 °C for 20 h as the control group). This regime mimicked the circadian rhythm of the vaginal temperature of lactating dairy cows during the summer season in southwestern Japan. Moreover, we also evaluated the oocyte's reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) levels and the apoptosis levels of the oocytes and cumulus cells in the presence or absence of 1.2 mM cysteine. As a result, HS in the without-cysteine group significantly suppressed (p < 0.05) both the nuclear maturation rate up to the metaphase (M)II stage and the blastocyst formation rate compared with that of the control group. In addition, this group showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) ROS levels and significantly lower (p < 0.05) GSH levels than those of the control group. Moreover, the level of TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL)-positive cumulus cells in the HS without-cysteine group was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of the control group. However, the addition of 1.2 mM cysteine to the maturation medium restored not only the nuclear maturation, blastocyst formation rates and GSH contents, but also increased the ROS and TUNEL-positive levels of the cumulus cells, but not oocytes, to that of the control group. These results indicate that the addition of 1.2 mM cysteine during in vitro maturation (IVM) may alleviate the influence of heat stress for oocyte developmental competence by increasing GSH content and inhibiting the production of oocyte ROS followed by apoptosis of cumulus cells.
Animal cloning methods are now well described and are becoming routine. Yet, the frequency at which live cloned offspring are produced remains below 5%, irrespective of the nuclear donor species or cell type. One possible explanation is that the reprogramming factor(s) of each oocyte is insufficient or not properly adapted for the receipt of a somatic cell nucleus, because it is naturally prepared only for the receipt of a gamete. Here, we have increased the oocyte volume by oocyte fusion and examined its subsequent development. We constructed oocytes with volumes two to nine times greater than the normal volume by the electrofusion or mechanical fusion of intact and enucleated oocytes. We examined their in vitro and in vivo developmental potential after parthenogenetic activation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). When the fused oocytes were activated parthenogenetically, most developed to morulae or blastocysts, regardless of their original size. Diploid fused oocytes were fertilized by ICSI and developed normally and after embryo transfer, we obtained 12 (4–15%) healthy and fertile offspring. However, enucleated fused oocytes could not support the development of mice cloned by SCNT. These results suggest that double fused oocytes have normal potential for development after fertilization, but oocytes with extra cytoplasm do not have enhanced reprogramming potential.
Objectives: We have compared mortality and risk factors for late deaths in patients with tetralogy of Fallot undergoing surgical repair in 1972 and 1982 in a Japanese multicentric study, examining in particular the impact of time of repair. Background: There is limited information on the effect that time of repair, and our constantly changing approach to it, has on late outcome in repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Methods: We analysed the Japanese registry of deaths occurring after surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot. We studied two postoperative 1-year cohorts of survivors of surgery performed in 12 centers. Of the patients, 122, aged 29 ± 12 years, had undergone repair in 1972, their age at repair being 9.6 years. An additional 186 patients, aged 23 ± 8.7 years, had been repaired in 1982 at the age of 7.7 years. Results: Annual mortality, as judged per 100,000 population of patients with tetralogy of Fallot, declined from 0.387 in 1972 to 0.196 in 1982. Significant differences were deaths following surgery (27% vs. 13%, p < 0.001), patching of the subpulmonary outflow tract (48% vs. 89%, p < 0.001), and transjunctional patching (13% vs. 63%, p < 0.001). Late death was observed in 6 vs. 3 patients (9/308, 2.9%). The actuarial rate of survival calculated over 14 years was 97% vs. 98%. Reoperation was performed in 5 vs. 9 patients (14/308, 4.5%). Risk factors for late death were age at repair (p = 0.01), and history of reoperation (p < 0.001). Transjunctional patching (p = 0.01) proved to be associated with late mortality only in patients repaired in 1972. Conclusions: Late survival was excellent, with a low incidence of reoperations in both groups of patients. The era of repair has a big influence on total and operative mortality, but has only a small impact on late mortality. Ongoing analysis of follow-up will possibly reveal subsequent changes with time.
Ice-core and snow samples collected on Belukha glacier, Russian Altai mountains, were analyzed for n-alkanes by gas chromatography. On the basis of the total concentrations (T-HCs), carbon preference index (CPI) values and the plant wax contributions (WaxCn), it is suggested that mountain glaciers on the Asian continent received higher loading of n-alkanes from natural and anthropogenic sources than the Greenland ice sheet. It appears that the loading and variation of n-alkanes on glaciers in the Altai are approximately the same as those of the mountain in general, because the concentrations, CPI values and WaxCn percentages of n-alkanes in Sofiyskiy glacier, also in the Russian Altai, are at the same levels as or slightly greater than those in ice-core and snow samples from Belukha glacier. It seems that the n-alkanes on Belukha glacier are derived mainly from higher plant wax and petroleum exhaust other than from diesel engines. Vertical profiles of T-HCs and CPI values of n-alkanes show that the non-WaxCn portions and T-HCs have recently increased with a decrease in CPI values on Belukha glacier. A similar trend of n-alkanes was reported for Sofiyskiy glacier, indicating that the influence of human activities has gradually increased around the Altai.
Although both intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and round spermatid injection (ROSI) are used in infertility treatments, the rate of offspring achieved with ROSI is low compared with that achieved with ICSI. The difficulty in correctly selecting round spermatids from testicular cells is one of the causes of this phenomenon. We easily selected live round spermatids from testicular cells stained with 20 nM MitoTracker, which visualizes mitochondria without killing the cell. Using this method, we divided round spermatids into three groups based on the polarization of their mitochondria, and performed ROSI. The rate of successful offspring achieved with MitoTracker-stained ROSI was the same in all groups. This indicates that changes in the polarization of mitochondria in round spermatids are not directly related to the developmental capacity of subsequently fertilized embryos. Because this staining has no harmful effects on embryo development, the selection of spermatids by MitoTracker under a fluorescence microscope should be useful in research into and the treatment of infertility.
The combination of 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid and tri-alkylphosphine was applied to produce monodisperse FePd nanoparticles by the polyol reduction of palladium acetylacetonate and thermally decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl. Images of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) data indicate a highly monodisperse and crystalline nature of the FePd nanoparticles. Magnetic studies performed by Quantum Design SQUID magnetometer show that FePd (16nm) nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at room temperature.
An amorphous p-type conductive oxide semiconductor was created based on a mother crystalline material, a p-type conductive ZnRh2O4 spinel. The amorphous film of ZnRh2O4 was deposited by an rf sputtering method. Seebeck coefficient was positive, +78 μVK-1, indicating that major carrier is a positive hole. A moderate electrical conductivity (2 S cm-1 at room temperature) for a p-type semiconductor was observed. Optical band gap was estimated to be 2.1 eV. P-n junction diodes with a structure of Au / a-ZnRh2O4 / a-InGaZnO4 / ITO fabricated on glass substrates, operated with a good rectifying characteristics, a rectification current ratio at ± 5V of ∼103. The threshold voltage was 2.1 eV, which corresponds to the band gap energy of the amorphous ZnRh2O4. This is the first discovery of a p-type amorphous oxide and the demonstration of p-n junction all composed of amorphous oxide semiconductors.
Several Cu(I)-containing layered oxysulfides were selected as candidates for wide-gap p-type semiconductors by extending a concept of a materials design for transparent p-type conducting oxides. The electrical and optical properties of the selected oxysulfides were investigated, and their electronic structures were analyzed by energy band calculations. LaCuOS, Sr2Cu2ZnO2S2 and Sr2CuGaO3S were found to be wide-gap p-type semiconductors, and LaCuOS showed the largest energy gap (Eg=3.1eV) among these layered oxysulfides. It was also found that LaCuOS shows band edge emission under uv excitation at room temperature, which is consistent with the results of the energy band calculations that LaCuOS has a direct-allowed-type energy gap at Γ point. In further materials research, analogous layered oxychalcogenides such as LaCuOSe and LnCuOS (Ln=Pr, Nd) were found to show similar optical and electrical properties to those of LaCuOS. Therefore, it is considered that the layered crystal structure and the electronic structure are responsible for the wide-gap p-type conductive properties in these materials.
A transparent oxide semiconductor with delafossite structure, CuInO2, was found to exhibit both p-type and n-type conduction by doping of an appropriate impurity and tuning of proper film-deposition conditions. Thin films of Ca-doped or Sn-doped CuInO2 were prepared on -Al2O3 (001) single crystal substrates by pulsed laser deposition method. The films were deposited at 723 K in O2 atmosphere of 1.0 Pa for the Ca-doped films or 1.5 Pa for the Sn-doped films. The positive sign of the Seebeck coefficient demonstrated p-type conduction in the Ca-doped films, while the Seebeck coefficient of the Sn-doped films was negative indicating n-type conductivity. The electrical conductivities of Ca-doped and Sn-doped CuInO2 thin films were 2.8×10−3 S·cm−1 and 3.8×10−3 S·cm−1, respectively, at 300 K. The optical band gap of each film was estimated to be ∼3.9 eV. Since CuInO2 exhibited bipolarity in electrical conduction, transparent p-n homojunctions based on CuInO2 were fabricated on (111) surface of yttria-stabilized zirconia single-crystal substrates. The structure of the diode was In2O3:Sn / n-CuInO2:Sn / p-CuInO2:Ca / In2O3:Sn electrode on the substrate. The contact between the n-and p-type CuInO2 semiconducting oxides was found to be rectifying. The turn-on voltage was ∼1.8 V.
High quality ITO thin films were grown hetero-epitaxially on extremely flat substrate of (001) YSZ by a pulsed laser deposition technique at a substrate temperature of 600°C. The crystal orientation relationship between the film and YSZ were confirmed as ITO (001) // YSZ (001) and ITO (010) // YSZ (010), respectively, by HR-XRD and HR-TEM. The carrier densities of the films were almost equal to Sn02 concentration in the films. That is, almost all the doped Sn4+ ions were activated to release electrons to the conduction band. The carrier densities of the films were enhanced up to 1.9×1021cm−3, while the Hall mobility showed a slight, almost linear, decrease from 55 to 40cm2V−1s−1 with increasing SnO2 concentration. The low resistivity is due to larger electron mobility, which most likely resulted from good crystal quality of the films. The optical transmissivity of the film exceeded 85% at wavelengths from 340 to 780nm.
We examined the effects of feeding guar-gum hydrolysate (GGH), a highly fermentable form of dietary fibre with low viscosity, on Ca absorption in the small and large intestines in rats under conditions in which gastric acid secretion was suppressed by a proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole. We also examined the role of the caecum in influencing these effects. The study was designed in a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement with two diet (GGH-containing (50 g/kg diet) and GGH-free diets) groups, two injection (omeprazole and vehicle) groups and two operation (sham and caecectomy) groups. Apparent Ca absorption was lower in rats administered omeprazole (30 mg/kg body weight per d) for 8 d than in rats administered the vehicle. Ingestion of GGH led to partial restoration of Ca absorption decreased by omeprazole treatment. However, this increment in Ca absorption was not sufficient to meet requirements because the dietary Ca level (3·0 g/kg diet) was the minimum requirement for the intact rats. The small increment in Ca absorption caused by the GGH diet was completely abolished by caecectomy. Soluble Ca pools in the caecal and colonic contents were increased by feeding GGH, and the soluble Ca concentrations were much higher than the Kt values of the Ca active transport system in the large intestine or the serum Ca concentration. These findings suggest that Ca solubilization is not a limiting factor for Ca absorption in the large intestine. Apparent Mg absorption was clearly lower in caecectomized rats than in sham-operated rats, and higher in the GGH-fed groups than in the groups fed on the GGH-free diet, even in the case of caecectomized rats. We conclude that Ca absorption lowered by inhibition of gastric acid secretion is partially restored in rats fed with GGH, but the increment is not sufficient to meet requirements.
Heteroepitaxial ZnO films were grown on (111) surface of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and (0001) surface of sapphire by PLD method, using KrF eximer laser (248nm) in an ultra-high-vacuum chamber. ZnO grown on YSZ (111) at the substrate temperature of 800°C had an epitaxial relationship at the ZnO/YSZ interface of ZnO //YSZ . Hexagonalshaped grains were observed whose surfaces were atomically flat. The grain size of ZnO increased and the Hall mobility rose toward 1400nm and 75cm2/Vs. respectively as film thickness increased from 10 nm to 800 nm.
Effects of feeding soluble dietary fibre on apparent Ca absorption and the contribution of the caecum to Ca absorption were examined in five-sixths nephrectomized (NPX)and normal rats with or without caecectomy in four experiments. It is known that Ca absorption is lowered by renal failure. In the first experiment the amounts of femur Ca increased linearly with increasing dietary Ca up to 3·0 g Ca/kg diet in intact rats. Partial nephrectomy decreased apparent Ca absorption in rats fed on diets containing 30 and 4·5 g Ca/kg diet. In the NPX groups, Ca absorption in rats fed on the diet containing guar-gum hydrolysate (GGH; 50 g/kg diet; 3·0 g Ca/kg diet) was significantly higher than that in rats fed on a fibre-free diet, and the increase in Ca absorption with GGH feeding was completely abolished by caecectomy. Also, ingestion of GGH increased Ca absorption in normal rats, but not in normal, caecectomized rats. Mg absorption was also increased with GGH feeding and was decreased with caecaectomyin NPX and normal rats. In experiments which used caecectomized rats, coprophagy wasprevented with an anal cup to avoid re-ingestion of faecal Ca. We conclude that ingestion of the soluble dietary fibre, GGH, increased apparent Ca absorption in NPX and non-NPX rats, and the caecum was responsible for these increases in Ca absorption.
We developed a new type of anal cup for prevention of coprophagy and determined whether the absorption of Ca and Mg and the stimulatory effects of feeding fructo-oligosaccharides (FO) on theabsorption of Ca and Mg were altered by prevention of coprophagy in rats. Rats were fed on a FO-free diet or a diet containing 50 g FO/kg for 2 weeks with or without prevention of coprophagy. FO-feeding increased the apparent absorptive ratio of Ca and Mg in rats with or without prevention of coprophagy. However, in the FO-fed groups the absorptive ratio of Mg in rats with prevention of coprophagy was higher than in rats withont prevention of coprophagy. The Ca content of the femur was higher in rats fed on the FO-diet than in rats fed on the FO-free diet both with and without coprophagy. In conclusion, FO-feeding increased the absorption of Ca and Mg in rats both with and without coprophagy. Moreover, prevention of coprophagy enhanced the absorption of Mg in rats fed with FO. Coprophagy has to be considered when the effects of luminal fermentation or mineral absorption are examined in rats
AlGaN/GalnN double heterostructures (DH) were fabricated by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on the (0001)Si 6H-SiC substrate. A cleaved edge shows a very flat surface with roughness on the order of one monolayer. Stimulated emission and laser action from the UV to blue region was observed by optical pumping at room temperature (RT). The threshold power density was 27KW/cm2 which is smaller than that of the same structure grown on a sapphire (0001) substrate by a factor of four. A AlGaN/GalnN DH UV light emitting diode, using undoped GalnN is fabricated. The power efficiency and spectra width of this LED is comparable or superior to that of an LED having the same structure but grown on sapphire.
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