New substrate materials; ZrB2,(3038) 4H-SiC and r-faced sapphire, are evaluated for use in nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). They are thought to be suitable for low-cost, short-wavelength, and highly efficient light-emitting devices. The ZrB2 substrate presents a high-quality nitride layers and a blue-violet LED with an excellent L-I curve. A vertical electrical transport is also possible due to its preferable work function and high electrical conductivity. Nitride layers tilted 54.7° from the c-plane can be grown on (3038) 4H-SiC. The LED grown on the (3038) 4H-SiC substrate shows a smaller blue shift of the EL peak wavelength with increasing driving current. Although the crystalline quality of nitride layers on r-faced sapphire was improved with the optimization of the misorientation angle, the performance of blue-violet LEDs is still low. Further work is needed to enable the practical application of r-faced sapphire to nitride-based LEDs.