Electrochemical catalyst design and optimization primarily relies on understanding and facilitating interfacial charge transfer. Recently, piezotronics have emerged as a promising method for tuning the interfacial energetics. The unique band-engineering capability using piezoelectric or ferroelectric polarization could lead to performance gains for electrochemical catalysis beyond what can be achieved by chemical or structural optimization. This article addresses the fundamentals of surface polarization and corresponding band modulation at solid–liquid interfaces. The most recent advances in piezotronic modulations are discussed from multiple perspectives of catalysis, including photocatalytic, photoelectrochemical, and electrochemical processes, particularly for energy-related applications. The concept of piezocatalysis, a direct conversion of mechanical energy to chemical energy, is introduced with an example of mechanically driven water splitting. While still in the early stages, piezotronics is envisioned to become a powerful tool for revolutionizing electrochemical catalysis.