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To assess the effect of an improved local ingredient-based gruel fortified or not with selected multiple micronutrients (MM) on Hb concentration of young children.
In a nutrition centre that we opened in their villages, children received either MM supplement (containing iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin C and iodine) with the improved gruel (MMGG) or the improved gruel only (GG), twice daily, 6 d/week, for 6 months. We assessed baseline and endpoint Hb concentration and anthropometric indices.
Kongoussi, a rural and poor district of Burkina Faso.
In a community-based trial, we randomly assigned 131 children aged 6–23 months with Hb concentrations in the range of 80–109 g/l into two groups.
The groups did not differ significantly at baseline. Mean baseline Hb concentration was 89·2 (sd 6·5) g/l and 90·3 (sd 8·4) g/l in the GG and the MMGG, respectively (P = 0·42). It increased to 104·1 (sd 11·4) g/l in the GG (P < 0·001) and 107·6 (sd 14·7) g/l in the MMGG (P < 0·001). The between-group difference of 3·5 (95 % CI −1·0, 8·1) g/l in mean (sd) endpoint Hb concentration was not significant (P = 0·13). The endpoint anthropometric indices were not different between the groups.
This MM supplement had no additional effect on Hb concentration. Thorough studies are needed to evaluate the actual efficacy of the gruel before its introduction into household routine.
To document the prevalence and the socio-spatial variations of obesity and to identify individual and household characteristics, lifestyles and dietary practices contributing to obesity and its socio-spatial distribution.
Population-based cross-sectional survey. We selected 1570 households from four strata characterised as unstructured and low building-density (ULBD), unstructured and high building-density (UHBD), structured and low building-density (SLBD) and structured and high building-density (SHBD) areas. Structured areas are those that were allotted by the township authority (cadastral services), with public services; unstructured areas refer to those developed with no cadastral organisation.
Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso.
BMI was calculated in 2022 adults aged 35 years and above who were classified as obese when their BMI was ≥30 kg/m2. Obesity was investigated in relation to household and individual characteristics, lifestyles and dietary practices; adjusted odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were derived from a logistic regression model.
The overall prevalence of obesity was 14·7 % (males 5·5 % and females 21·9 %). Age, gender, household equipment index, usual transport with motor vehicles and micronutrient-rich food consumption were associated with obesity. After adjustment for these factors, obesity remained associated with the area of residence: residents from SHBD areas were more likely to be obese than those from ULBD areas (OR = 1·41; 95 % CI 2·59,4·76).
Obesity in Ouagadougou is a preoccupant problem that calls for more consideration. Thorough investigation is needed to assess the environmental factors that contribute to the socio-spatial disparity of obesity.
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