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This paper reports on a record-low-phase noise D-band signal source with 5 dBm output power, and 1.3 GHz tuning range. The source is based on the unconventional combination of a fundamental frequency 23 GHz oscillator in 150 nm AlGaN/GaN HEMT technology followed by a 130 nm SiGe BiCMOS MMIC including a sixtupler and an amplifier. The amplifier operates in compression mode as power-limiting amplifier, to equalize the source output power so that it is nearly independent of the oscillator's gate and drain bias voltages used for tuning the frequency of the source. The choice of using a GaN HEMT oscillator is motivated by the need for a low oscillator noise floor, which recently has been demonstrated as a bottle-neck for data rates in wideband millimeter-wave communication systems. The phase noise performance of this signal source is −128 dBc/Hz at 10 MHz-offset. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this result is the lowest reported phase noise of D-band signal source.
Getting a better understanding of the evolution and nucleosynthetic yields of the most metal-poor stars (Z ≲ 10−5) is critical because they are part of the big picture of the history of the primitive universe. Yet many of the remaining unknowns of stellar evolution lie in the birth, life, and death of these objects. We review stellar evolution of intermediate-mass Z ≤ 10−5 models existing in the literature, with a particular focus on the problem of their final fates. We emphasise the importance of the mixing episodes between the stellar envelope and the nuclearly processed core, which occur after stars exhaust their central He (second dredge-up and dredge-out episodes). The depth and efficiency of these episodes are critical to determine the mass limits for the formation of electron-capture SNe. Our knowledge of these phenomena is not complete because they are strongly affected by the choice of input physics. These uncertainties affect stars in all mass and metallicity ranges. However, difficulties in calibration pose additional challenges in the case of the most metal-poor stars. We also consider the alternative SN I1/2 channel to form SNe out of the most metal-poor intermediate-mass objects. In this case, it is critical to understand the thermally pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch evolution until the late stages. Efficient second dredge-up and, later, third dredge-up episodes could be able to pollute stellar envelopes enough for the stars to undergo thermal pulses in a way very similar to that of higher initial Z objects. Inefficient second and/or third dredge-up may leave an almost pristine envelope, unable to sustain strong stellar winds. This may allow the H-exhausted core to grow to the Chandrasekhar mass before the envelope is completely lost, and thus let the star explode as an SN I1/2. After reviewing the information available on these two possible channels for the formation of SNe, we discuss existing nucleosynthetic yields of stars of metallicity Z ≤ 10−5 and present an example of nucleosynthetic calculations for a thermally pulsing Super-Asymptotic Giant Branch star of Z = 10−5. We compare theoretical predictions with observations of the lowest [Fe/H] objects detected. The review closes by discussing current open questions as well as possible fruitful avenues for future research.
This paper presents the design and characterization of a D-band (110–170 GHz) monolithic microwave integrated direct carrier quadrature modulator and demodulator circuits with on-chip quadrature local oscillator (LO) phase shifter and radio frequency (RF) balun fabricated in a 130 nm SiGe BiCMOS process with ft/fmax of 250 GHz/400 GHz. These circuits are suitable for low-power ultra-high-speed wireless communication and can be used in both homodyne and heterodyne architectures. In single-sideband operation, the modulator demonstrates a maximum conversion gain of 9.8 dB with 3-dB RF bandwidth of 33 GHz (from 119 GHz to 152 GHz). The measured image rejection ratio (IRR) and LO suppression are 19 dB and 31 dB, respectively. The output P1dB is −4 dBm at 140 GHz RF and 1 GHz intermediate frequency (IF) and the chip consumes 53 mW dc power. The demodulator, characterized as an image reject mixer, exhibits 10 dB conversion gain with 23-dB IRR. The measured 3-dB RF bandwidth is 36 GHz and the IF bandwidth is 18 GHz. The active area of both the chips is 620 µm × 480 µm including the RF and LO baluns. A 12-Gbit/s QPSK data transmission using 131-GHz carrier signal is demonstrated on modulator with measured modulator-to-receiver error vector magnitude of 21%.
Leishmaniasis are diseases caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania and transmitted to humans by the bite of infected insects of the subfamily Phlebotominae. Current drug therapy shows high toxicity and severe adverse effects. Recently, two oligopeptidases (OPBs) were identified in Leishmania amazonensis, namely oligopeptidase B (OPB) and oligopeptidase B2 (OPB2). These OPBs could be ideal targets, since both enzymes are expressed in all parasite lifecycle and were not identified in human. This work aimed to identify possible dual inhibitors of OPB and OPB2 from L. amazonensis. The three-dimensional structures of both enzymes were built by comparative modelling and used to perform a virtual screening of ZINC database by DOCK Blaster server. It is the first time that OPB models from L. amazonensis are used to virtual screening approach. Four hundred compounds were identified as possible inhibitors to each enzyme. The top scored compounds were submitted to refinement by AutoDock program. The best results suggest that compounds interact with important residues, as Tyr490, Glu612 and Arg655 (OPB numbers). The identified compounds showed better results than antipain and drugs currently used against leishmaniasis when ADMET in silico were performed. These compounds could be explored in order to find dual inhibitors of OPB and OPB2 from L. amazonensis.
The introduction of the Manila clam into British coastal waters in the 1980s was contested by conservation agencies. While recognizing the value of the clam for aquaculture, the government decided that it posed no invasive risk, as British sea temperatures would prevent naturalization. This proved incorrect. Here we establish the pattern of introduction and spread of the species over the first 30 years of its presence in Britain. We report archival research on the sequence of licensed introductions and examine their relationship in time and space to the appearance of wild populations as revealed in the literature and by field surveys. By 2010 the species had naturalized in at least 11 estuaries in southern England. These included estuaries with no history of licensed introduction. In these cases activities such as storage of catch before market or deliberate unlicensed introduction represent the probable mechanisms of dispersal. In any event naturalization is not an inevitable consequence of introduction and the chances of establishment over the period in question were finely balanced. Consequently in Britain the species is not currently aggressively invasive and appears not to present significant risk to indigenous diversity or ecosystem function. However it is likely to gradually continue its spread should sea surface temperatures rise as predicted.
This volume of the Haskins Society Journal furthers the Society's commitment to historical and interdisciplinary research on the early and central Middle Ages, especially in the Anglo-Saxon, Anglo-Norman, and Angevin worlds but also on the continent. The topics of the essays it contains range from the curious place of Francia in the historiography of medieval Europe to strategies of royal land distribution in tenth-century Anglo-Saxon England to the representation of men and masculinity in the works of Anglo-Norman historians. Essays on the place of polemical literature in Frutolf of Michelsberg's Chronicle, exploration of the relationship between chivalry and crusading in Baudry of Bourgeuil's History, and Cosmas of Prague's manipulation of historical memory in the service of ecclesiastical privilege and priority each extend the volume's engagement with medieval historiography, employing rich continental examples to do so. Investigations of comital personnel in Anjou and Henry II's management of royal forests and his foresters shed new light on the evolving nature of secular governance in the twelfth centuries and challenge and refine important aspects of our view of medieval rule in this period. The volume ends with a wide-ranging reflection on the continuing importance of the art object itself in medieval history and visual studies. Contributors: H.F. Doherty, Kathryn Dutton, Kirsten Fenton, Paul Fouracre, Herbert Kessler, Ryan Lavelle, Thomas J.H. McCarthy, Lisa Wolverton, Simon Yarrow.
The dogwhelk Nucella lapillus experienced localized extinction in the 1980s and 1990s due to the use of tributyltin (TBT) antifoulants, causing imposex in females. The aim of this study was to establish the extent of the return of the species across the mainland coast of central southern England as TBT use has been progressively restricted, and to quantify the extent of imposex impact on the populations present. We surveyed from Poole to Selsey where isolated populations had become extinct, and the Isle of Wight where some populations had persisted. We found evidence that since TBT restrictions, recolonization and colonization by N. lapillus has been rapid. By 2007–2008, of the eleven surveyed mainland sites, seven were colonized, although indications of reduced imposex impacts were mixed. Distribution had also extended on the Isle of Wight and populations were larger with less imposex impact in sites with long term populations. The lack of continuous suitable habitat blocks and the hydrodynamic complexity of the region, leads us to hypothesize that recovery has been facilitated by man-made structures which may be acting as ‘stepping stones’. Populations that have become established on engineered structures such as sea walls, breakwaters and rock groynes demonstrate accelerated recovery in the region as TBT in the environment has generally declined. Sites with suitable substrates and food sources near to ports were either not recolonized or had small populations with imposex evident. For species with a short pelagic larval stage or with direct development, population connectivity between patches of harder substrata along hydrodynamically complex coastlines may be greater than previously thought.
Cyberbullying has become a significant area of concern, yet research is still at an early stage. The Quality Circle approach allows explorative analysis of cyberbullying in school settings by identifying issues for further consideration. In this study of cyberbullying in one UK secondary school, Quality Circle participants were required to establish a small anti-bullying taskforce, and then with the guidance of a facilitator, embark on a problem-solving exercise over a period of time. The process involves identifying key issues and prioritising concerns, analysing problems and generating solutions, through participation in a series of themed workshops. Six Quality Circle groups were formed, and the work produced during practical activities was documented and discussions recorded as evidence of emerging themes. The areas of interest regarding cyberbullying were the differing perceptions reported by each representative group, and collectively the range of problems and solutions identified.
To establish the prevalence of, and risk factors for, psychiatric symptoms in Ground Zero ironworkers. Questionnaires commonly used to screen for psychiatric symptoms were completed by 124 workers.
We have established the prevalence of screening positive for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, panic attacks, generalised anxiety, depression and alcohol misuse. Among the risk factors were alcohol misuse, injury to or death of a family member, friend or co-worker at Ground Zero and one or more adverse life events since 9/11.
Ironworkers at Ground Zero tend to have significant psychiatric symptoms likely to be associated with the traumatic experience of working there during the clean-up operation. Risk factors for psychiatric symptoms were established.