To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Various imaging modalities are useful in confirming the diagnosis, determining the etiology of adult hydrocephalus, providing intraoperative guidance, and improving the follow-up of patients who have undergone treatment including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting or endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). These include: conventional X-rays, ultrasonography, computerized axial tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and radionuclide shunt patency (SP) imaging. CT scans are performed to obtain a baseline image postoperatively to demonstrate the location of the proximal catheter in the ventricular system, the baseline size of the ventricles, and any postoperative intraventricular hemorrhage. CTs are helpful in diagnosing shunt malfunctions in younger patients. MRI provides excellent multiplanar anatomic definition of the ventricular system, subarachnoid spaces, and brain parenchyma. The SP study is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of shunt malfunction particularly in the idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patient population.