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In eastern Africa, there are few long, high-quality records of environmental change at high altitudes, inhibiting a broader understanding of regional climate change. We investigated a Holocene lacustrine sediment archive from Lake Garba Guracha, Bale Mountains, Ethiopia, (3,950 m asl), and reconstructed high-altitude lake evaporation history using δ18O records derived from the analysis of compound-specific sugar biomarkers and diatoms. The δ18Odiatom and δ18Ofuc records are clearly correlated and reveal similar ranges (7.9‰ and 7.1‰, respectively). The lowest δ18O values occurred between 10–7 cal ka BP and were followed by a continuous shift towards more positive δ18O values. Due to the aquatic origin of the sugar biomarker and similar trends of δ18Odiatom, we suggest that our lacustrine δ18Ofuc record reflects δ18Olake water. Therefore, without completely excluding the influence of the ‘amount-effect’ and the ‘source-effect’, we interpret our record to reflect primarily the precipitation-to-evaporation ratio (P/E). We conclude that precipitation increased at the beginning of the Holocene, leading to an overflowing lake between ca. 10 and ca. 8 cal ka BP, indicated by low δ18Olake water values, which are interpreted as reduced evaporative enrichment. This is followed by a continuous trend towards drier conditions, indicating at least a seasonally closed lake system.
Terrestrial plant macrofossils from the sedimentary record of Lake Suigetsu, Japan, provide the only quasi-continuous direct atmospheric record of radiocarbon (14C) covering the last 50 ka cal BP (Bronk Ramsey et al. 2012). Since then, new high precision data have become available on U-Th dated speleothems from Hulu Cave China, covering the same time range (Cheng et al. 2018). In addition, an updated varve-based chronology has also been published for the 2006 core from Lake Suigetsu (SG06) based on extended microscopic analysis of the sediments and improved algorithms for interpolation (Schlolaut et al. 2018). Here we reanalyze the radiocarbon dataset from Suigetsu based on the new varve counting information and the constraints imposed by the speleothem data. This enables the new information on the calendar age scale of the Suigetsu dataset to be used in the construction of the consensus IntCal calibration curve. Comparison of the speleothem and plant macrofossil records provides insight into the mechanisms underlying the incorporation of carbon into different types of record and the relative strengths of different types of archive for calibration purposes.
To evaluate the effects of a polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplement on reproductive parameters of suckled beef cows, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment (Exp.) 1, 60 primiparous cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: CTRL – 1.36 kg/day of corn gluten feed (CGF) and MEGR – 1.36 kg/day of CGF and 0.23 kg/day of calcium salts of soybean oil. Supplementation occurred from 30 days before fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) until 7 days post-TAI. The expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) was measured on days 18 and 21. Pregnancy rates were diagnosed on days 30 and 100. Treatment altered plasma fatty acid profile (P<0.05), however, did not change cow BW (P=0.52) or body condition score (BCS) (P=0.52). Treatment did not alter (P=0.12) pregnancy rates to TAI or final pregnancy rates (P=0.56). Treatments did not impact messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the ISG OAS1 or MX2 on days 18 (P=0.67; P=0.96, respectively) or 21 (P=0.72; P=0.17, respectively). Length of gestation was greater (P=0.02) for MEGR, however, treatments did not alter calf birth weight (P=0.20). In Exp. two, 66 multiparous cows were assigned to one of two treatments: MEG – 0.65 kg/day of CGF+0.23 kg/day of calcium salts of palm oil and MEGR – 0.65 kg/day of CGF+0.23 kg/day of Ca salts of soybean oil. Cows were supplemented from 30 days prepartum to 30 days postpartum. On day 35 after TAI, pregnancy status, embryo crown-to-rump length (CRL), and plasma concentrations of pregnancy-specific protein-B (PSPB) were evaluated. Treatment altered plasma fatty acid profile (P<0.05). In addition, cows from the MEG treatment had greater BW (P<0.01) and BCS (P<0.01) than those in the MEGR treatment, as well as heavier calves at weaning (P=0.03). Treatment did not affect resumption of estrous cycle (P=0.29). There were no differences in pregnancy rates to TAI (P=0.87) or final pregnancy rates (P=0.29). No differences between treatments were detected on CRL (P=0.24) and plasma concentrations of PSPB (P=0.46). Birth weight (P=0.12) and calving distribution (P=0.52) were not altered. We concluded that PUFA supplementation altered plasma fatty acid profile, however, did not impact the remaining reproductive parameters evaluated.
We used a change point analysis on a late Pleistocene–Holocene lake-sediment record from the Chew Bahir basin in the southern Ethiopian Rift to determine the amplitude and duration of past climate transitions. The most dramatic changes occurred over 240 yr (from ~15,700 to 15,460 yr) during the onset of the African Humid Period (AHP), and over 990 yr (from ~4875 to 3885 yr) during its protracted termination. The AHP was interrupted by a distinct dry period coinciding with the high-latitude Younger Dryas stadial, which had an abrupt onset (less than ~100 yr) at ~13,260 yr and lasted until ~11,730 yr. Wet-dry-wet transitions prior to the AHP may reflect the high-latitude Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles, as indicated by cross-correlation of the potassium record with the NorthGRIP ice core record between ~45–20 ka. These findings may contribute to the debates regarding the amplitude, and duration and mechanisms of past climate transitions, and their possible influence on the development of early modern human cultures.
The diatom stratigraphy of a 23-m sediment core from Lake Tilo, a maar lake in the Ethiopian Rift Valley, provides a 10,000-yr record of lake salinity and trophic status. Until 5500 14C yr B.P., the phytoplankton was dominated by Aulacoseira granulata, with only minor changes in the abundance of other diatoms; the lake was over 50 m deep, eutrophic, and oligosaline. At 5500 yr B.P., geothermal groundwater inflow, inferred from calcite and silica deposition rates, declined abruptly, and the lake became more oligotrophic, as indicated by a rapid rise in Cyclotella stelligera. About 4500 yr B.P., lake salinity began to increase, reaching approximately its present state ca. 2500 yr B.P., but with a temporary reversal to lower salinity at 4000–3500 yr B.P. The record shows no evidence of salinity increases equivalent to early Holocene low stands of the larger river-fed Rift Valley lakes, probably because of high rates of geothermal groundwater influx. It responded to reduced rainfall at 4500 yr B.P., when levels of the larger lakes also fell, because geothermal groundwater flux had diminished 1000 year earlier, independently of climate. Because geothermal groundwaters can form a significant proportion of a crater lake's hydrological budget and dominate its salinity budget, these results show that variable geothermal groundwater flux can override lake hydrochemical response to climate change. Palaeoclimatic interpretation of palaeosalinity proxies from the sediments of volcanic crater lakes should be approached with caution.
The varved sediment profile of Lake Suigetsu, central Japan, offers an ideal opportunity from which to derive a terrestrial record of atmospheric radiocarbon across the entire range of the 14C dating method. Previous work by Kitagawa and van der Plicht (1998a,b, 2000) provided such a data set; however, problems with the varve-based age scale of their SG93 sediment core precluded the use of this data set for 14C calibration purposes. Lake Suigetsu was re-cored in summer 2006, with the retrieval of overlapping sediment cores from 4 parallel boreholes enabling complete recovery of the sediment profile for the present “Suigetsu Varves 2006” project (Nakagawa et al. 2012). Over 550 14C determinations have been obtained from terrestrial plant macrofossils picked from the latter SG06 composite sediment core, which, coupled with the core's independent varve chronology, provides the only non-reservoir-corrected 14C calibration data set across the 14C dating range.
Here, physical matching of archive U-channel sediment from SG93 to the continuous SG06 sediment profile is presented. We show the excellent agreement between the respective projects' 14C data sets, allowing the integration of 243 14C determinations from the original SG93 project into a composite Lake Suigetsu 14C calibration data set comprising 808 individual 14C determinations, spanning the last 52,800 cal yr.
Calibration is a fundamental stage of the radiocarbon (14C) dating process if one is to derive meaningful calendar ages from samples' 14C measurements. For the first time, the IntCal09 calibration curve (Reimer et al. 2009) provided an internationally ratified calibration data set across almost the complete range (0 to 50,000 cal BP) of the 14C timescale. However, only the last 12,550 cal yr of this record are composed of terrestrial data, leaving approximately three quarters of the 14C timescale necessarily calibrated via less secure, marine records (incorporating assumptions pertaining to the temporally variable “marine reservoir effect”). The predominantly annually laminated (varved) sediment profile of Lake Suigetsu, central Japan, offers an ideal opportunity to derive an extended terrestrial record of atmospheric 14C across the entire range of the method, through pairing of 14C measurements of terrestrial plant macrofossil samples (extracted from the sediment) with the independent chronology provided through counting of its annual laminations.
This paper presents new data (182 14C determinations) from the upper (largely non-varved) 15 m of the Lake Suigetsu (SG06) sediment strata. These measurements provide evidence of excellent coherence between the Suigetsu 14C data and the IntCal09 calibration curve across the last ~12,000 cal yr (i.e. the portion of IntCal based entirely on terrestrial data). Such agreement demonstrates that terrestrial plant material picked from the Lake Suigetsu sediment provides a reliable archive of atmospheric 14C, and therefore supports the site as being capable of providing a high-resolution extension to the “wholly terrestrial” (i.e. non-reservoir-corrected) calibration curve beyond its present 12,550 cal BP limit.
GaN films were deposited on sapphire (0001) from triethylgallium (TEG) and NH3 seeded in separate He free jets. as the dissociative chemisorption of NH3 is expected to be rate-limiting in GaN growth, the NH3/He nozzle temperature was varied to control the incident kinetic energy of the NH3 molecules. Using an NH3/TEG flow ratio of 205 and an NH3/He nozzle temperature of 400°C, stoichiometric films were deposited at substrate temperatures ≥530°C. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that films deposited at 580°C are polycrystalline α-GaN with randomly oriented 0.5-μm grains. Films with a closely similar morphology are deposited by using an NH3/He nozzle temperature of 90°C. IN contrast, films deposited at 580°C using an NH3/He nozzle temperature of 510°C consist of whiskers (aspect ratio = c A. 4) which exhibit a-GaN (0001)/sapphire (0001) heteroepitaxy, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and reflection high-energy electron diffraction.
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