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Over the last two decades the complex network paradigm has proven to be a fruitful tool for the investigation of complex systems in many areas of science; for example, the Internet, neural networks and social networks. This book provides an overview of applications of network theory to climate variability, such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the Indian Monsoon, presenting recent important results obtained with these techniques and showing their potential for further development and research. The book is aimed at researchers and graduate students in climate science. A basic background in physics and mathematics is required. Several of the methodologies presented here will also be valuable to a broader audience of those interested in network science, for example, from biomedicine, ecology and economics.
We provide an overview of current techniques and typical applications of numerical bifurcation analysis in fluid dynamical problems. Many of these problems are characterized by high-dimensional dynamical systems which undergo transitions as parameters are changed. The computation of the critical conditions associated with these transitions, popularly referred to as ‘tipping points’, is important for understanding the transition mechanisms. We describe the two basic classes of methods of numerical bifurcation analysis, which differ in the explicit or implicit use of the Jacobian matrix of the dynamical system. The numerical challenges involved in both methods arementioned and possible solutions to current bottlenecks are given. To demonstrate that numerical bifurcation techniques are not restricted to relatively low-dimensional dynamical systems, we provide several examples of the application of the modern techniques to a diverse set of fluid mechanical problems.