To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We report a comparative experimental study of the reversal of the large-scale circulation in turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection in a quasi-two-dimensional corner-less cell where the corner vortices are absent and in a quasi-two-dimensional normal cell where the corner vortices are present. It is found that in the corner-less cell the reversal frequency exhibits a slow decrease followed by a fast decrease with increasing Rayleigh number
, separated by a transitional
). The transition is similar to that in the normal cell, and
is almost the same for both cells. Despite the similarities, the reversal frequency is greatly reduced in the corner-less cell. The reduction of the reversal frequency is more significant, in terms of both the amplitude and the scaling exponent, in the high-
regime. In addition, we classified the reversals into main-vortex-led and corner-vortex-led, and found that both types exist in the normal cell while only the former exists in the corner-less cell. The frequency of main-vortex-led reversal in the normal cell is found to be in excellent agreement with the frequency of reversals in the corner-less cell. Our results reveal for the first time the quantitative role of the corner vortices in the occurrence of the reversals of the large-scale circulation.
The literature on regression kink designs develops identification results for average effects of continuous treatments (Nielsen et al., 2010, American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 2, 185–215; Card et al., 2015, Econometrica 83, 2453–2483), average effects of binary treatments (Dong, 2018, Jump or Kink? Identifying Education Effects by Regression Discontinuity Design without the Discontinuity), and quantile-wise effects of continuous treatments (Chiang and Sasaki, 2019, Journal of Econometrics 210, 405–433), but there has been no identification result for quantile-wise effects of binary treatments to date. In this article, we fill this void in the literature by providing an identification of quantile treatment effects in regression kink designs with binary treatment variables. For completeness, we also develop large sample theories for statistical inference, present a practical guideline on estimation and inference, conduct simulation studies, and provide an empirical illustration.
The mammary gland, a unique exocrine organ, is responsible for milk synthesis in mammals. Neonatal growth and health are predominantly determined by quality and quantity of milk production. Amino acids are crucial maternal nutrients that are the building blocks for milk protein and are potential energy sources for neonates. Recent advances made regarding the mammary gland further demonstrate that some functional amino acids also regulate milk protein and fat synthesis through distinct intracellular and extracellular pathways. In the present study, we discuss recent advances in the role of amino acids (especially branched-chain amino acids, methionine, arginine and lysine) in the regulation of milk synthesis. The present review also addresses the crucial questions of how amino acids are transported, sensed and transduced in the mammary gland.
Blockchain technology has rapidly emerged as a decentralized trusted network to replace the traditional centralized intermediator. Especially, the smart contracts that are based on blockchain allow users to define the agreed behaviour among them, the execution of which will be enforced by the smart contracts. Based on this, we propose a decentralized booking system that uses the blockchain as the intermediator between hoteliers and travellers. The system enjoys the trustworthiness of blockchain, improves efficiency and reduces the cost of the traditional booking agencies. The design of the system has been formally modelled using the CSP# language and verified using the model checker Process Analysis Toolkit. We have implemented a prototype decentralized booking system based on the Ethereum ecosystem.
We find that corporate innovation is positively related to board diversity as measured by a multidimensional index. The benefit of board diversity is more pronounced for firms with more complex operations, more experienced boards, and stronger external governance, suggesting that diverse boards have superior advising capacity. We find evidence to suggest that firms with diverse boards engage in more exploratory innovations and develop new technology in unfamiliar areas. As a result, they create a larger number of both most-cited and uncited patents. Finally, of the six different aspects of board diversity, professional diversity matters the most for corporate innovation.
A simple numerical model has been proposed for laser cladding. The model does not involve complex techniques such as cell addition, moving mesh, or prescribing a clad profile with a certain polynomial function. Instead, a mass function has been introduced to register the clad mass deposition on substrate, and from which the clad-track height can be estimated. The model takes several operational parameters, laser power, laser-head speed, and clad powder feeding rate, into consideration and predicts clad-track geometry, dilution, and substrate temperature. Experiments using two different combinations of substrate and clad powder materials to lay single and multiple clad tracks were conducted to provide data for model validation. The results show that the present model returns good agreement with experimental clad profiles for single and multiple tracks.
This study adopted a Kansei engineering methodology to examine users’ Kansei values toward automotive interior designs by conducting experiments under two models: sensory experience and perceived value evaluation models. In the sensory experience model, 60 participants were recruited to experience using 27 vehicle samples and to assign scores to eight Kansei keywords. Hayashi's quantification theory type 1 was used to calculate the weight of 12 interior space items and 40 interior design categories. In the perceived value evaluation model, 60 participants completed a questionnaire on the influence levels of the Kansei keywords on their Kansei values from the perspectives of four consumer perceived value dimensions. The questionnaire scores were then evaluated using factor analysis to extract nine primary factors affecting participants’ perceptions. This study determined that the interesting and dynamic perceptions corresponded to five design items under the Excitement Quality factors, vigorous and recreational perceptions corresponded to four items under the Relaxation and Comfort factor, and technological and luxurious perceptions corresponded to six items under the Luxury and Splendor factor and the Esteemed Image factor. These findings can help designers and researchers in the relevant sectors create automotive interior designs that fulfill the expectations of users.
We present an experimental study of the reversal of the large-scale circulation (LSC) in quasi-two-dimensional turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection. It is found that there exists a transition in the Rayleigh number (
) dependence of the reversal rate
with two distinct scalings: for
less than a transitional value
, the non-dimensionalized reversal rate
; however, for higher
the scaling changes to
is the turnover time of the LSC. Flow visualization shows that this regime transition originates from a change in flow topology from a single-roll state to a new, less stable, abnormal single-roll state with substructures inside the single roll. The emergence of the substructures inside the LSC lowers the energy barrier for the flow reversals to occur and leads to a slower decay of
. Detailed analysis reveals that, although it is the corner rolls that trigger the reversal event, the probability for the occurrence of reversals mainly depends on the stability of the LSC. This is supported by a model we proposed to predict the critical condition for the transition, which agrees well with the experimental results.
Evaluation of Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Se in humans is challenged by the potentially high within-individual variability of these elements in biological specimens, which are poorly characterised. This study aimed to evaluate their within-day, between-day and between-month variability in spot samples, first-morning voids and 24-h collections. A total of 529 spot urine samples (including eighty-eight first-morning voids and 24-h collections) were collected from eleven Chinese adult men on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 30, 60 and 90 and analysed for these five elements using inductively coupled plasma-MS. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were utilised to characterise the reproducibility, and their sensitivity and specificity were analysed to assess how well a single measurement classified individuals’ 3-month average exposures. Serial measurements of Zn in spot samples exhibited fair to good reproducibility (creatinine-adjusted ICC = 0·47) over five consecutive days, which became poor when the samples were gathered months apart (creatinine-adjusted ICC = 0·33). The reproducibility of Cr, Mn, Fe and Se in spot samples was poor over periods ranging from days to months (creatinine-adjusted ICC = 0·01–0·12). Two spot samples were sufficient for classifying 60 % of the men who truly had the highest (top 33 %) 3-month average Zn concentrations; for Cr, Mn, Fe and Se, however, at least three specimens were required to achieve similar sensitivities. In conclusion, urinary Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Se concentrations showed a strong within-individual variability, and a single measurement is not enough to efficiently characterise individuals’ long-term exposures.
In this paper, a novel multilayer substrate integrated dual-mode dielectric resonator (DR) filter is proposed. The square dual-mode DR is made of the high permittivity substrate by removing the undesired portions and the surface coppers so that the relatively high unloaded quality factor of the dominate TM11 pair can be obtained which compared to these fully dielectric-filled substrate integrated waveguides. Meanwhile, it can be easily integrated in an equivalent cavity implemented by multilayer printed circuit boards for filter design, showcasing low in-band loss, light weight, and compact size. For demonstration, a multilayer substrate integrated DR bandpass filter centered at X-band is designed and measured. Good agreement between the simulated and measured results can be observed, and the measured insertion loss at the passband center frequency (8.38 GHz) is 1.1 dB.
Compared with commercial polyolefin membranes, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membrane prepared by electrostatic spinning has higher porosity, electrolyte uptake, thermal stability, and lithium-ion conductivity, etc. However, poor mechanical performance has largely limited the application of electrospun PAN separators. In this study, PAN/polyimide (PI) composite membrane is prepared by electrostatic spinning to improve the mechanical and electrochemical performances. Scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis method, and electrochemical methods were used for evaluation of the electrospun composite membrane. The results show that the composite membrane possesses good thermal stability and exhibits better mechanical performance than pristine PAN membrane (increasing by 1.1 times in tension strength). The addition of PI can increase porosity and fluid absorption rate obviously. In addition, the composite membrane has high ionic conductivity (18.77 × 10−4 S/cm), wide electrochemical window (about 4.0 V), and excellent cycling performance. It can retain a discharge specific capacity of 153 mA h/g even after 50 cycles at 0.5 C. The electrospun PAN/PI membrane may be a promising candidate for lithium-ion battery separators.
The finite element simulations show that non-equibiaxial residual stresses (RS) can shift the load–depth curve from the unstressed curve and cause elliptical remnant indentation in spherical indentation. Thus the relative load change between stressed and unstressed samples and the asymmetry of elliptical remnant indentation were employed as characteristic parameters to evaluate the magnitude and directionality of RS. Through theoretical and numerical analysis, the effects of RS on indentation load and remnant impression as well as the affect mechanism were systematically discussed. Finally, two equations which could provide foundations for establishing spherical indentation method to evaluate non-equibiaxial RS were obtained.
Maternal dietary patterns and macronutrients intake have been shown to affect the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but the findings are inconsistent. We aimed to identify maternal dietary patterns and examine their associations with GDM risk, and to evaluate the contributions of macronutrients intake to these associations. We included 2755 Chinese pregnant women from the Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ 2 weeks before the diagnosis of GDM. GDM (n 248) was diagnosed based on the results of a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks gestation. We derived five different dietary patterns from a principal component analysis. The results showed that high fish–meat–eggs scores, which were positively related to protein intake and inversely related to carbohydrate intake, were associated with a higher risk of GDM (adjusted OR for quartile 4 v. quartile 1: 1·83; 95 % CI 1·21, 2·79; Ptrend=0·007) and higher plasma glucose levels. In contrast, high rice–wheat–fruits scores, which were positively related to carbohydrate intake and inversely related to protein intake, were associated with lower risk of GDM (adjusted OR for quartile 3 v. quartile 1: 0·54; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·83; Ptrend=0·010) and lower plasma glucose levels. In addition, dietary protein and carbohydrate intake significantly contributed to the associations between dietary patterns and GDM risk or glucose levels. These findings suggest that a dietary pattern characterised by high protein and low carbohydrate intake in pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of GDM, which may provide important clues for dietary guidance during pregnancy to prevent GDM.
The sense of calling has emerged as a burgeoning research interest for the past decade due to its close connection to the meaningfulness of work. However, the effects of a sense of calling and how it functions in the workplace remain unclear. This study aims at enhancing the concept of calling and understanding its application in organizations. Therefore, a cross-level model was proposed according to data collected from 24 organizations in Taiwan. As a result, our study demonstrated that sense of calling is positively related to individual performance, and the supportive organizational climate also plays an important role in the relationship between sense of calling and contextual performance. Consequently, by incorporating factors at both the organizational and individual levels into the mechanism of calling, a valuable insight into and application of an individual’s sense of calling in the work context has been established, and management implications were also provided.
In this paper, we propose an enhanced Monte Carlo localization (EMCL) algorithm for mobile robots, which deals with the premature convergence problem in global localization as well as the estimation error existing in pose tracking. By incorporating a mechanism for preventing premature convergence (MPPC), which uses a “reference relative vector” to modify the weight of each sample, exploration of a highly symmetrical environment can be improved. As a consequence, the proposed method has the ability to converge particles toward the global optimum, resulting in successful global localization. Furthermore, by applying the unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) to the prediction state and the previous state of particles in Monte Carlo Localization (MCL), an EMCL can be established for pose tracking, where the prediction state is modified by the Kalman gain derived from the modified prior error covariance. Hence, a better approximation that reduces the discrepancy between the state of the robot and the estimation can be obtained. Simulations and practical experiments confirmed that the proposed approach can improve the localization performance in both global localization and pose tracking.
The study aimed to unravel the interaction between ocean acidification and solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in Chaetoceros curvisetus. Chaetoceros curvisetus cells were acclimated to high CO2 (HC, 1000 ppmv) and low CO2 concentration (control, LC, 380 ppmv) for 14 days. Cell density, specific growth rate and chlorophyll were measured. The acclimated cells were then exposed to PAB (photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) + UV-A + UV-B), PA (PAR + UV-A) or P (PAR) for 60 min. Photochemical efficiency (ΦPSII), relative electron transport rate (rETR) and the recovery of ΦPSII were determined. HC induced higher cell density and specific growth rate compared with LC. However, no difference was found in chlorophyll between HC and LC. Moreover, ΦPSII and rETRs were higher under HC than LC in response to solar UVR. P exposure led to faster recovery of ΦPSII, both under HC and LC, than PA and PAB exposure. It appeared that harmful effects of UVR on C. curvisetus could be counteracted by ocean acidification simulated by high CO2 when the effect of climate change is not beyond the tolerance of cells.
This paper reviews the development of agent-based (computational) economics (ACE) from an econometrics viewpoint. The review comprises three stages, characterizing the past, the present, and the future of this development. The first two stages can be interpreted as an attempt to build the econometric foundation of ACE, and, through that, enrich its empirical content. The second stage may then invoke a reverse reflection on the possible agent-based foundation of econometrics. While ACE modeling has been applied to different branches of economics, the one, and probably the only one, which is able to provide evidence of this three-stage development is finance or financial economics. We will, therefore, focus our review only on the literature of agent-based computational finance, or, more specifically, the agent-based modeling of financial markets.