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We propose a new theory of human cognitive evolution, which we term Complementary Cognition. We build on evidence for individual neurocognitive specialization regarding search abilities in the modern population, and propose that our species cooperatively searches and adapts through a system of group-level cognition. This paper sets out a coherent theory to explain why Complementary Cognition evolved and the conditions responsible for its emergence. Using the framework of search, we show that Complementary Cognition can be contextualized as part of a hierarchy of systems including genetic search and cognitive search. We propose that, just as genetic search drives phenotypic adaptation and evolution, complementary cognitive search is central to understanding how our species adapts and evolves through culture. Complementary Cognition has far-reaching implications since it may help to explain the emergence of behavioural modernity and provides a new explanatory framework for why language and many aspects of cooperation evolved. We believe that Complementary Cognition underpins our species’ success and has important implications for how modern-day systems are designed.
The impact of losing a limb in military service extends well beyond initial recovery and rehabilitation, with long-term consequences and challenges requiring health-care commitments across the lifecourse. This paper presents a systematic review of the current state of knowledge regarding the long-term impact of ageing and limb-loss in military veterans. Key databases were systematically searched including: ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science, PsycArticles/PsychInfo, ProQuest Psychology and ProQuest Sociology Journals, and SPORTSDiscus. Empirical studies which focused on the long-term impact of limb-loss and/or health-care requirements in veterans were included. The search process revealed 30 papers relevant for inclusion. These papers focused broadly on four themes: (a) long-term health outcomes, prosthetics use and quality of life; (b) long-term psycho-social adaptation and coping with limb-loss; (c) disability and identity; and (d) estimating the long-term costs of care and prosthetic provision. Findings present a compelling case for ensuring the long-term care needs and costs of rehabilitation for older limbless veterans are met. A dearth of information on the lived experience of limb-loss and the needs of veterans’ families calls for further research to address these important issues.
Baby boomers who rent are often overlooked as an important sub-group. We aimed to assess the chronic conditions, risk factors, socio-economic factors and other health-related factors associated with renting in private or public housing. Data from telephone interviews conducted each month in South Australia between 2010 and 2015 were combined. Prevalence estimates were assessed for each risk factor and chronic condition by housing status. The association between housing status and variables of interest were analysed using logistic regression models adjusting for multiple covariates (age, gender, income, smoking, physical activity, area and year of data collection). Overall, 17.4 per cent of the 16,687 baby boomers interviewed were renting, either privately or using government-subsided housing. The health profile of renters (both private and public) was poorer overall, with renters more likely to have all of the chronic conditions and ten risk factors assessed. For public renters the relationships were maintained even after controlling for socio-economic and risk factor variables for all chronic diseases except osteoporosis. This research has provided empirical evidence of the considerable differences in health, socio-economic indicators and risk factors between baby boomers who rent and those who own, or are buying, their own homes.
It is not known whether increased mental health expenditure is associated with better outcomes.
To estimate the association between national mental health expenditure and (a) quality of longer-term mental healthcare, (b) service users' ratings of that care in eight European countries.
National mental health expenditure (per cent of health budget spent on mental health) was calculated from international sources. Multilevel models were developed to assess associations with quality of care and service user experiences of care using ratings of 171 facility managers and 1429 service users.
Significant positive associations were found between mental health spend and (a) six of seven quality of care domains; and (b) service user autonomy and experiences of care.
Greater national mental health expenditure was associated with higher quality of care and better service user experience.
This paper is based on a parallel session at the BIALL Conference 2016 which was given by Helen Marshall and Kelly Taylor from Pinsent Masons. Pinsent Masons has a ground-breaking team of research analysts providing the firm with in-depth sector and market analysis. This innovative approach has benefits for Pinsent Masons and also for the research team. These include increased visibility within the firm and developing a role as a trusted adviser to the business. The team are drawn from a variety of backgrounds, including experienced law librarians. In this article, Kelly and Helen, who are both from a law librarian background, will explain Pinsents' unique approach to business and sector insight. The article covers how the team adds value to the firm and charts the development of our existing skillsets to meet this new challenge. The article also includes some practical insight into approaching business research and how to overcome common obstacles, notably the challenge in expanding our output from traditional legal research to more business and commercially aware pieces.
Progress has been slow in improving health disparities between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians and other Australians. While reasons for this are complex, delivering healthcare respectful of cultural differences is one approach to improving Indigenous health outcomes. This paper presents and evaluates an intercultural academic leadership programme developed to support tertiary educators teaching Indigenous health and culture prepare interdisciplinary students to work respectfully and appropriately as health professionals with Indigenous peoples. The programme acknowledges the impact of colonisation on Indigenous Australians and draws on theories of the intercultural space to inform reflection and discussion on Indigenous/non-Indigenous relations and their impact on healthcare. Furthermore, the programme encourages establishing a community of practice as a resource for educators. Evaluation indicated participants’ confidence to teach Indigenous content increased following the programme. Participants felt more able to create intercultural, interdisciplinary and interactive learning spaces that were inclusive and safe for students from all cultures. Participants learned skills to effectively facilitate and encourage students to grapple with the complexity of the intercultural space, often tense, uncertain and risky, to enable new understandings and positions to emerge that could better prepare graduates to work in Indigenous health contexts.
Background: Patients diagnosed with a personality disorder (PD) are often stigmatized by the healthcare staff who treat them. Aims: This study aimed to compare the impact on front-line staff of a self-management Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based training intervention (ACTr) with a knowledge- and skills-based Dialectical Behaviour Training intervention (DBTr). Method: A service-based randomized controlled trial was conducted comparing the effects of 2-day ACTr (N = 53) and DBTr (N = 47) staff workshops over 6 months. Primary outcome measures were staff attitudes towards patients and staff-patient relationships. Results: For both interventions, staff attitudes, therapeutic relationship, and social distancing all improved pre- to postintervention, and these changes were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Conclusions: Although offering different resources to staff, both ACTr and DBTr were associated with an improved disposition towards PD patients. Future research could evaluate a combined approach, both for staff working with PD patients and those working with other stigmatized groups.
This paper will focus on the practice of social work within the context of an international Hague Convention concerning children: the 1980 Hague Convention on The Civil Aspects of International Parental Child Abduction. After describing the programmes of International Social Service (ISS) Australia, this organisation's existing approaches to working with families affected by international parental child abduction will be specifically discussed as an example of practice within the context of that Convention. The paper highlights the benefits of social work practice and mediation-based services for families. Dilemmas of practice within a legal framework will then be considered, with particular reference to the trap of uncritical implementation of social work practice as a social control agent of the judicial system. Potential social work contributions in the area of analysis and critique through the perspectives offered by gendered analysis, human rights and children's rights, and the tradition of advocacy as an integral sphere of practice will be discussed, with the paper arguing that for social work to best meet the needs of children affected by this legislation, it must perform its vital functions of social and political critique, and individual and systemic advocacy.
Human movement constitutes a fundamental part of the archaeological process, and of any interpretation of a site's usage; yet there has to date been little or no consideration of how movement observed (in contemporary situations) and inferred (in archaeological reconstruction) can be documented. This paper reports on the Motion in Place Platform project, which seeks to use motion capture hardware and data to test human responses to Virtual Reality (VR) environments and their real-world equivalents using round houses of the Southern British Iron Age which have been both modelled in 3D and reconstructed in the present day as a case study. This allows us to frame questions about the assumptions which are implicitly hardwired into VR presentations of archaeology and cultural heritage in new ways. In the future, this will lead to new insights into how VR models can be constructed, used and transmitted.
Experimental archaeology is often cited as an important asset in the study of human interaction with material culture, especially in remote periods of history where there are few other sources of data on the human interventions which constitute the archaeological record. This has found many expressions in the discourse of archaeological theory, including the so-called chaîne opératoire, or ‘operational sequence’ theory (see e.g. Bar-Yosef and Van Peer 2009). However, due to an understandable desire to adhere to empirical evidence, means of inferring the human movement behind those interventions are rarely considered in the computational reconstruction of archaeological environments. The most obvious reason for this is that buildings, features and artefacts can be understood and reconstructed (whether digitally or not) from empirical archaeological remains, whereas there is little or no direct evidence for how people might have looked and moved through the spaces they created. Approaches which seek to go beyond this are methodologically fraught, resulting in a limitation of the scope of 3D reconstruction, both as a tool for archaeological research and as means of presenting cultural heritage to the public. The impact on the user's experience of those reconstructions is also limited. In a review of 3D visualization in archaeology, Gillings states: ‘[I]t is worth noting that one of the most striking things about archaeological Virtualmodels is the lack of people in them.
The Mental Health Recovery Star (MHRS) is a popular outcome measure rated collaboratively by staff and service users, but its psychometric properties are unknown.
To assess the MHRS's acceptability, reliability and convergent validity.
A total of 172 services users and 120 staff from in-patient and community services participated. Interrater reliability of staff-only ratings and test–retest reliability of staff-only and collaborative ratings were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Convergent validity between MHRS ratings and standardised measures of social functioning and recovery was assessed using Pearson correlation. The influence of collaboration on ratings was assessed using descriptive statistics and ICCs.
The MHRS was relatively quick and easy to use and had good test–retest reliability, but interrater reliability was inadequate. Collaborative ratings were slightly higher than staff-only ratings. Convergent validity suggests it assesses social function more than recovery.
The MHRS cannot be recommended as a routine clinical outcome tool but may facilitate collaborative care planning.
This article argues that voices of doom, predicting the demise of Crescent City, have been drowned out by an optimistic and energetic movement both within and outside New Orleans to bring everyone home, and to revive and renew the city, especially through a showcasing of its diverse cultures. New Orleans's history is one of destruction and rebuilding, climatic disaster and haphazard reconstruction. The dramatic disappearance of the wetlands and urban hinterland, caused by climate change and ecological damage brought about by construction and oil companies, makes New Orleans's physical and demographic future questionable and controversial. But there is strong commitment by its citizens and internationally celebrated musicians to keep the city alive, and the global reputation and power of its music have attracted powerful advocates and cheerleaders. Music, film, television programmes, the visual arts, literature and many forms of published testimony and oral history have reminded the world of this city's unique multicultural postcolonial history, drawing back tourists and visitors to celebrate one of America's most extraordinary melting pots.
Like many other 'regional' - that is, not Boston or New York - writers of the late nineteenth century, Kate Chopin participated in an ambitious post-Civil War publication project designed to open up the diverse richness of the USA to a growing reading public. The 'Local Color' movement involved making strange or exotic the particular and parochial - in terms of landscape, character, dialect and so on - and expanding the range and scope of the 'national' literature. One of many who took Louisiana as her subject, Chopin is recognised as having captured brilliantly the state's atmosphere, fine detail, ethnic and racial mixtures, fleshing out as she does the nature of this post-colonial society in a bruised post-bellum world. Chopin takes pains to emphasise the specific linguistic and social differences between French-speaking regions of Louisiana and the rest of the USA. Quotation marks are frequently appended to phrases, sayings and aspects of Louisiana life and artefacts, and her use of dialects - mainly Negro and French Acadian, though also French Creole - is authoritative. Writing at a distance in St Louis, Missouri, following the deaths of her husband and mother, she was involved in interpretation and explication, not only to portray for readers the essence of a state that fascinated her but also to record a world that was disappearing fast into the maw of 'Americanness'. Much of her fiction records what a newly post-colonial state felt like within a larger homogenising nation, particularly in terms of the impact on its French Creole and French Acadian peoples. Kate Chopin had a complex relationship with Louisiana's French culture, offering multiple perspectives on fin-de-siècle issues of gender, ethnicity and language. Her work has rightly been celebrated for its subtle treatment of the changing face of southern life, and especially of southern women. In all her work, female characters embody the tensions and transformations within post-bellum life.
Much has been written in recent years about the development of open access institutional repositories, and how an institution such as a university can stock them with its research outputs, particularly refereed articles published in scholarly journals, thereby making the findings of its researchers freely available to the wider community. It is an idea which has attracted generous project funding in the UK and elsewhere, and which has triggered debate between supporters and sceptics alike. Since the first Budapest Open Access Initiative in 2002 (www.soros. org/openaccess/read.shtml), the number of universities with institutional repositories in the UK and indeed worldwide has certainly grown, yet the number plentifully stocked with the ‘full text of these articles’ as envisaged by the Initiative continues to be quite small.
A key finding of an important enquiry by Swan and Brown (2005) into the attitudes of authors towards institutional repositories is also often reported. It is that 81% of authors would willingly comply with a requirement by their employer or research funder to deposit copies of their articles in an open archive (Swan and Brown, 2005, 63). And yet the number actually doing so remains far fewer. This paper brings together data from an evaluation of the SHERPA project (www.sherpa.ac.uk/), funded by the UK Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) and carried out by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management (CERLIM) during 2005, and insights (illustrated by quotations) from the more recent experiences of a team of library staff at Manchester Metropolitan University (MMU) as they continue to create, manage and develop their institution's repository, e-space at MMU (www.e-space.mmu.ac.uk/e-space/).
The SHERPA project aimed to investigate a new model of scholarly communication by creating institutional repositories in 13 UK research-led university libraries. These repositories were to be managed by library staff, populated with freely available full-text copies of articles published in scholarly journals and written by researchers at these universities. The project therefore was concerned to see how this new model of depositing copies of publications in a repository would sit alongside traditional journal publishing. Authors would be encouraged to self-archive their publications, rather than using librarians as intermediaries.