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The National Cryo-Electron Microscopy Facility (NCEF) at the National Cancer Institute was launched in May of 2017 to provide free and rapid access to high-resolution cryo-EM data collection to United States researchers working on problems of broad general relevance to cancer biology. The decision about suitability of projects for data collection is made on a first-come, first-served basis by NCEF staff and is based solely on the quality of the screening images provided, without need for a scientific proposal. Here we provide an overview of the operation of the facility, typical data collection procedures, and some insights that have emerged from the structures reported from data collected at the facility.
Movement disorders associated with exposure to antipsychotic drugs are common and stigmatising but underdiagnosed.
To develop and evaluate a new clinical procedure, the ScanMove instrument, for the screening of antipsychotic-associated movement disorders for use by mental health nurses.
Item selection and content validity assessment for the ScanMove instrument were conducted by a panel of neurologists, psychiatrists and a mental health nurse, who operationalised a 31-item screening procedure. Interrater reliability was measured on ratings for 30 patients with psychosis from ten mental health nurses evaluating video recordings of the procedure. Criterion and concurrent validity were tested comparing the ScanMove instrument-based rating of 13 mental health nurses for 635 community patients from mental health services with diagnostic judgement of a movement disorder neurologist based on the ScanMove instrument and a reference procedure comprising a selection of commonly used rating scales.
Interreliability analysis showed no systematic difference between raters in their prediction of any antipsychotic-associated movement disorders category. On criterion validity testing, the ScanMove instrument showed good sensitivity for parkinsonism (90%) and hyperkinesia (89%), but not for akathisia (38%), whereas specificity was low for parkinsonism and hyperkinesia, and moderate for akathisia.
The ScanMove instrument demonstrated good feasibility and interrater reliability, and acceptable sensitivity as a mental health nurse-administered screening tool for parkinsonism and hyperkinesia.
Persisting symptoms after treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) contribute to ongoing impairment and relapse risk. Whether cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or antidepressant medications result in different profiles of residual symptoms after treatment is largely unknown.
Three hundred fifteen adults with MDD randomized to treatment with either CBT or antidepressant medication in the Predictors of Remission in Depression to Individual and Combined Treatments (PReDICT) study were analyzed for the frequency of residual symptoms using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) item scores at the end of the 12-week treatment period. Separate comparisons were made for treatment responders and non-responders.
Among treatment completers (n = 250) who responded to CBT or antidepressant medication, there were no significant differences in the persistence of residual MADRS symptoms. However, non-responders treated with medication were significantly less likely to endorse suicidal ideation (SI) at week 12 compared with those treated with CBT (non-responders to medication: 0/54, 0%, non-responders to CBT: 8/30, 26.7%; p = .001). Among patients who terminated the trial early (n = 65), residual MADRS item scores did not significantly differ between the CBT- and medication-treated groups.
Depressed adults who respond to CBT or antidepressant medication have similar residual symptom profiles. Antidepressant medications reduce SI, even among patients for whom the medication provides little overall benefit.
The acoustics of a straight annular lined duct containing a swirling mean flow is considered. The classical Ingard–Myers impedance boundary condition is shown not to be correct for swirling flow. By considering behaviour within the thin boundary layers at the duct walls, the correct impedance boundary condition for an infinitely thin boundary layer with swirl is derived, which reduces to the Ingard–Myers condition when the swirl is set to zero. The correct boundary condition contains a spring-like term due to centrifugal acceleration at the walls, and consequently has a different sign at the inner (hub) and outer (tip) walls. Examples are given for mean flows relevant to the interstage region of aeroengines. Surface waves in swirling flows are also considered, and are shown to obey a more complicated dispersion relation than for non-swirling flows. The stability of the surface waves is also investigated, and as in the non-swirling case, one unstable surface wave per wall is found.
There is evidence that some countries negotiate trade agreements during economic downturns. Why would a leader do this? We argue that political leaders can gain from such agreements because of the signals they send to their public. The public are less likely to blame leaders for adverse economic conditions when they have implemented sound economic policies, such as signing agreements designed to liberalize trade and prevent a slide into protectionism. In hard economic times, leaders – especially those in democratic environments – may find that trade agreements are a useful way to reassure the public. Since majorities in many countries around the world view trade favorably, leaders may see agreements that prevent them from adopting protectionism as a way to maintain support. We evaluate this argument by analyzing preferential trade agreements (PTAs) formed since 1962. We find that, on average, democratic countries are more likely to form PTAs during hard economic times. We also find that democratic leaders who sign PTAs during downturns enjoy a longer tenure than their counterparts who do not sign such agreements.
Archaeologists commonly use the onset of the construction of large burial monuments as a material indicator of a fundamental shift in authority in prehistoric human societies during the Holocene. High-quality direct evidence of this transition is rare. We report new interdisciplinary research at the archaeological site of Nan Madol that allows us to specify where and when people began to construct monumental architecture in the remote islands of the Pacific. Nan Madol is an ancient administrative and mortuary center and the former capital of the island of Pohnpei. It was constructed over 83 ha of lagoon with artificial islets and other architecture built using columnar basalt and coral. We employed geochemical sourcing of basalt used as architectural stone and high-precision uranium-thorium series dates (230Th/U) on coral from the tomb of the first chief of the entire island to identify the beginning of monument building at Nan Madol in AD 1180-1200. Over the next several centuries (AD 1300-1600) monument building began on other islands across Oceania. Future research should be aimed at resolving the causes of these social transformations through higher quality data on monument building.
The majority of the family caregivers are adult children in China. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of reciprocal filial piety (RFP) between the care recipient's behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and the caregiver's burden or gain among adult-child caregivers caring for parents with dementia in China.
Using Kramer's caregiver adaptation model as the research framework, a cross-sectional survey collected data from 401 adult-child caregivers caring for parents with dementia from hospitals in China.
Results of the regression analysis revealed that after adjusting for covariates, the regression coefficient between care recipient's BPSD and caregiver burden reduced from c = 1.01 to c′ = 0.91 when controlling for RFP. Using the bootstrap approach, the estimated indirect effect through RFP between care recipient's BPSD and caregiver burden was 0.11 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.20). The mediation proportion was 11%. The absolute value of the regression coefficient between care recipient's BPSD and caregiver gain reduced from c = −0.75 to c′ = −0.63 when controlling for RFP. The bootstrapped estimate of the indirect effect through RFP between care recipient's BPSD and caregiver gain was −0.12 (95% CI: −0.18, −0.07). The mediation proportion was 12%.
The findings suggest that the effect of care recipient's BPSD on caregiver's burden/gain may be related to the level of RFP among adult-child caregivers in China.
Fifty years ago, Heyerdahl and Skjølsvold (1956, 1990) collected material from five archaeological sites in the Galápagos Islands. They retained earthenwares of possible precolumbian origin and discarded ceramic, metal, and glass artifacts postdating the arrival of the Spanish in A.D. 1535. Consequently, they argued that each site was formed as the results of a series of discard events from unrelated short-term occupations extending from the precolumbian to the historical era, and that the earthenwares represented occasional visits by fishermen from precolumbian Peru and Ecuador. In 2005, we re-excavated the sites and collected all the excavated materials. Our results show that each class of material, irrespective of age or origin, was distributed spatially and stratigraphically in the same pattern, contradicting the former assumption of multiple, unrelated occupations. We reject the palimpsest model in favor of the null hypothesis of single-phase site occupation. Analysis of putatively precolumbian pottery using optically-stimulated luminescence dating indicates that it is mostly of historical age. Radiocarbon dating confirms that the archaeological sites are younger than the sixteenth century. Research on sedimentary cores shows probable anthropogenic impacts as restricted to the last 500 years. We conclude that there was no human occupation in the Galápagos Islands until the historical era.
Childhood obesity is a highly complex issue with serious health and environmental implications. It has been postulated that young children (preschool-aged in particular) are able to internalise positive environmental beliefs. Applying a socioecological theoretical perspective, in this discussion paper we argue that although children may internalise such beliefs, they commonly behave in ways that contradict these beliefs as demonstrated by their consumer choices. The media directly influences these consumer choices and growing evidence suggests that media exposure (particularly commercial television viewing) may be a significant “player” in the prediction of childhood obesity. However, there is still debate as to whether childhood obesity is caused by digital media use per se or whether other factors mediate this relationship. Growing evidence suggests that researchers should examine whether different types of content have conflicting influences on a child's consumer choices and, by extension, obesity. The extent to which young children connect their consumer choices and the sustainability of the produces they consume with their overall health and wellbeing has not previously been researched. To these ends, we call for further research on this socioecological phenomenon among young children, particularly with respect to the influence of digital media use on a child's consumer behaviours.
This study aims to explore moderation and mediation roles of caregiver self-efficacy between subjective caregiver burden and (a) behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD) of dementia; and (b) social support.
A cross-sectional study with 137 spouse caregivers of dementia patients was conducted in Shanghai. We collected demographic information for the caregiver–patient dyads, as well as information associated with dementia-related impairments, caregiver social support, caregiver self-efficacy, and SF-36.
Multiple regression analysis showed that caregiver self-efficacy was a moderator both between BPSD and subjective caregiver burden, and social support and subjective caregiver burden. Results also showed a partial mediation effect of caregiver self-efficacy on the impact of BPSD on subjective caregiver burden, and a mediation effect of social support on subjective caregiver burden. Caregiver self-efficacy and subjective burden significantly influenced BPSD and social support.
Caregiver self-efficacy played an important role in the paths by which the two factors influenced subjective burden. Enhancing caregiver self-efficacy for symptom management (particularly BPSD) can be an essential strategy for determining interventions to support dementia caregivers in China, and possibly in other countries.
Increased recognition of the business case for managing corporate impacts on the environment has helped drive increasingly detailed and quantified corporate environmental goals. Foremost among these are goals of no net loss (NNL) and net positive impact (NPI). We assess the scale and growth of such corporate goals. Since the first public, company-wide NNL/NPI goal in 2001, 32 companies have set similar goals, of which 18 specifically include biodiversity. Mining companies have set the most NNL/NPI goals, and the majority of those that include biodiversity, despite the generally lower total global impact of the mining industry on biodiversity compared to the agriculture or forestry industries. This could be linked to the mining industry's greater participation in best practice bodies, high-profile impacts, and higher profit margins per area of impact. The detail and quality of present goals vary widely. We examined specific NNL/NPI goals and assessed the extent to which their key components were likely to increase the effectiveness of these goals in benefiting biodiversity and managing business risk. Nonetheless, outcomes are more important than goals, and we urge conservationists to work with companies to both support and monitor their efforts to achieve increasingly ambitious environmental goals.
Charlotte Brewer, Professor of English Language and Literature at Oxford University and a Fellow of Hertford College, Oxford,Barry Windeatt, Professor of English in the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge
Storytelling may be one of the very oldest human activities after the acquisition of language. Language is a symbolic process that produces signifying sounds as a substitute for the things themselves; story allows those sounds to be linked to describe a sequence of events that are not present as fact but that have their existence in the mind, as memory or conjecture or imagination. The very earliest cave paintings or rock art suggest pre-existing stories of some kind behind them. Studies of memory formation and of childhood psychology suggest that it is the ability to form narratives, to shape random events into the syntax of a story, that enables an infant to make sense of the world it finds itself in.
Derek Brewer was increasingly fascinated by story and storytelling – not just in particular stories, though his delight in those masters of narrative Chaucer and Malory makes that evident, but in the principles underlying story itself. That is apparent even in the titles of some of his publications, in his Symbolic Stories: Traditional Narratives of the Family Drama in English Literature (1980), or in the collection of articles he entitled Chaucer: The Poet as Storyteller (1984b). That contains a reprint of his earlier Gollancz lecture, delivered in 1974, ‘Towards a Chaucerian Poetic’, which is perhaps his most concise and detailed consideration of the principles underlying story as such, and of the importance of story – especially traditional forms of narrative, folk-tales, fairy-tales and many medieval romances – over whatever meanings might be attached to them.