Following large-scale herbicide spraying and burning on Assateague Island, a barrier bar island located in Maryland and Virginia, the invasive common reed (Phragmites australis) was largely reduced from vast monocultures to less dense patches interspersed within maritime shrublands. To improve the control of these remnant/reemerging infestations and limit further nontarget damage, we tested three new treatments: mechanical cutting followed by dripping imazapyr onto stems, cutting followed 2 wk later by the foliar spraying of regrowth, and simple cutting with and without the removal of Phragmites litter. All herbicide treatments and cutting paired with litter removal significantly reduced Phragmites coverage (P ≤ 0.01) when compared with untreated controls. Native plant coverage was significantly greater after the cut-stem treatment than after traditional foliar spraying (P ≤ 0.01) because of the former's reduced herbicide use and more direct contact limited to Phragmites stems; native coverage was also greater after litter removal than when litter remained (P ≤ 0.001). Cutting followed by stem applications of herbicide is an effective means of treating scattered common reed stands in sensitive habitats, and litter removal after cutting can provide native vegetation with an advantage at recolonization.