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COVID-19 has been identified as an acute respiratory illness leading to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. As the disease spread demands on healthcare systems increased, specifically the need to expand hospital capacity. Alternative care hospitals (ACH) have been utilized to mitigate these issues; however, establishing an ACH has many challenges. The goal of this session was to perform systems testing using a simulation based evaluation to identify areas in need of improvement.
Four simulation cases were designed to depict common and high acuity situations encountered in the ACH using a high technology simulator and standardized patient. A multidisciplinary observer group was given debriefing forms listing the objectives, critical actions and specific areas to focus their attention. These forms were compiled for data collection.
Logistical, operational and patient safety issues were identified during the simulation and compiled into a simulation event report. Proposed solutions and protocol changes were made in response to the identified issues.
Simulation was successfully utilized for systems testing, supporting efforts to maximize patient care and provider safety in a rapidly developed ACH. The simulation event report identified operational deficiencies and safety concerns directly resulting in equipment modifications and protocol changes.
Introduction to Education provides pre-service teachers with an overview of the context, craft and practice of teaching in Australian schools as they commence the journey from learner to classroom teacher. Each chapter poses questions about the nature of teaching students, and guides readers though the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. Incorporating recent research and theoretical literature, Introduction to Education presents a critical consideration of the professional, policy and curriculum contexts of teaching in Australia. The book covers theoretical topics in chapters addressing assessment, planning, safe learning environments, and working with colleagues, families, carers and communities. More practical chapters discuss professional experience and building a career after graduation. Rigorous in conception and practical in scope, Introduction to Education welcomes new educators to the theory and practical elements of teaching, learning, and professional practice.
How do bureaucracies remember? The conventional view is that institutional memory is static and singular, the sum of recorded files and learned procedures. There is a growing body of scholarship that suggests contemporary bureaucracies are failing at this core task. This Element argues that this diagnosis misses that memories are essentially dynamic stories. They reside with people and are thus dispersed across the array of actors that make up the differentiated polity. Drawing on four policy examples from four sectors (housing, energy, family violence and justice) in three countries (the UK, Australia and New Zealand), this Element argues that treating the way institutions remember as storytelling is both empirically salient and normatively desirable. It is concluded that the current conceptualisation of institutional memory needs to be recalibrated to fit the types of policy learning practices required by modern collaborative governance.
Background: Effective medical device reprocessing (MDR) is essential in preventing the spread of microorganisms and maintaining patient safety. Alberta Health Services (AHS) is an Alberta-wide, integrated health system, responsible for delivering health services to >4.3 million people living in the province. In 2010, periodic province-wide MDR reviews were initiated by the provincial health system to verify that the cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization of reusable critical and semicritical medical devices met established standards. To date, there have been 3 review cycles; in cycle 3, a follow-up process for tracking and reporting corrective actions was initiated. Methods: As in previous MDR review cycles, cycle 3 included the use of a standardized suite of tools to measure compliance with standards set by Accreditation Canada, the Canadian Standards Association, and the Government of Alberta. Each cycle involved a review of MDR areas completed by trained reviewers. Interrater reliability among reviewers was maintained through training and debriefings following reviews to ensure agreement. Following reviews, reports were generated for areas, zones, and AHS. As part of the corrective actions and follow-up process, identified deficiencies were categorized into 5 themes. Corrective actions were tracked and periodic reports were generated showing the progress of deficiency resolution. Resolution rates (number of resolved deficiencies divided by total number of of deficiencies) were calculated for each of the identified themes as well as overall for cycle 3. Results: Overall compliance for cycle 3 was 93%. Cycle 3 reviews revealed that more than half of the deficiencies (58%) were identified previously in cycle 2. The resolution rates ranged from 78% to 95% for identified deficiencies for 4 of the 5 themes: documentation, technique, PPE/attire/hand hygiene, and other. The theme related to physical infrastructure showed a considerably lower resolution rate of 49%. The corrective action follow-up process showed increased overall resolution rate from 59% at the start of the follow-up process to 82% at its completion. When this resolution rate was applied to the initial survey compliance rate for cycle 3, overall compliance increased to 99%. Conclusions: Monitoring quality of MDR practices is essential in maintaining and improving patient safety. The standardized provincial review process identified common themes and a coordinated approach to support the resolution of many identified deficiencies. Most of those deficiencies were resolved; however, those deficiencies related to physical infrastructure of the MDR department continue to be seen across review cycles. This review process with follow up of these deficiencies can help bring attention to organization leadership and Funding: authorities during budget cycles.
Opioid use disorder is a major public health crisis, and evidence suggests ways of better serving patients who live with opioid use disorder in the emergency department (ED). A multi-disciplinary team developed a quality improvement project to implement this evidence.
The intervention was developed by an expert working group consisting of specialists and stakeholders. The group set goals of increasing prescribing of buprenorphine/naloxone and providing next day walk-in referrals to opioid use disorder treatment clinics. From May to September 2018, three Alberta ED sites and three opioid use disorder treatment clinics worked together to trial the intervention. We used administrative data to track the number of ED visits where patients were given buprenorphine/naloxone. Monthly ED prescribing rates before and after the intervention were considered and compared with eight nonintervention sites. We considered whether patients continued to fill opioid agonist treatment prescriptions at 30, 60, and 90 days after their index ED visit to measure continuity in treatment.
The intervention sites increased their prescribing of buprenorphine/naloxone during the intervention period and prescribed more buprenorphine/naloxone than the controls. Thirty-five of 47 patients (74.4%) discharged from the ED with buprenorphine/naloxone continued to fill opioid agonist treatment prescriptions 30 days and 60 days after their index ED visit. Thirty-four patients (72.3%) filled prescriptions at 90 days.
Emergency clinicians can effectively initiate patients on buprenorphine/naloxone when supports for this standardized evidence-based care are in place within their practice setting and timely follow-up in community is available.
To assess the nutritional quality of Australian supermarket own brand chilled convenience foods (SOBCCF), for example, ready meals, pizza, pies and desserts.
Two large supermarkets (Coles and Woolworths) in Perth, Western Australia were audited in February 2017.
Data were extracted from photographic images of 291 SOBCCF, including front-of-pack information (i.e. product name, description and nutrition labels including Health Star Rating (HSR)) and back-of-pack information (i.e. nutrition information panel and ingredients list). SOBCCF were classified as healthy or unhealthy consistent with principles of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGTHE), NOVA classification of level of food processing and HSR score.
Fifty-four percentage of SOBCCF were classified as unhealthy according to AGTHE principles, 94 % were ultra-processed foods using NOVA and 81 % scored a HSR of ≥2·5, implying that they were a healthy choice. Some convenience food groups comprised more healthy choices overall including prepared vegetables, salad kits and bowls, soups and vegetarian food. A significantly larger proportion of SOBCCF from Coles were classified as unhealthy compared with Woolworths (70 v. 44 %, P < 0·05) using the AGTHE.
The findings suggest there is potential for Australian supermarkets to improve the nutritional quality of their SOBCCF and highlights the differences between supermarkets in applying their corporate social responsibility policies. Policies to assist consumers to select healthier foods should address difficulties in identifying healthy convenience foods. The findings reveal misclassification of unhealthy SOBCCF as healthy by the HSR suggesting that its algorithm should be reformed to align with recommendations of the AGTHE.
Group psychotherapy for older adults with generalised anxiety disorder is an under-researched area.
This report describes a mixed method evaluation of the acceptability and feasibility of an Overcoming Worry Group.
The Overcoming Worry Group was a novel adaptation of a cognitive behavioural therapy protocol targeting intolerance-of-uncertainty for generalised anxiety disorder, tailored for delivery to older adults in a group setting (n = 13).
The adapted protocol was found to be acceptable and feasible, and treatment outcomes observed were encouraging.
This proof-of-concept study provides evidence for an Overcoming Worry Group as an acceptable and feasible group treatment for older adults with generalised anxiety disorder.
Healthcare-facility–onset C.difficile LabID events are defined as positive stool samples collected >3 days after hospitalization. Using a definition of >72 hours, we found that 84 of 1013 cases (8.3%) identified as C. difficile LabID events were collected between 48 and 72 hours after admission.
Retrospective reports of lifetime experience with mental disorders greatly underestimate the actual experiences of disorder because recall error biases reporting of earlier life symptoms downward. This fundamental obstacle to accurate reporting has many adverse consequences for the study and treatment of mental disorders. Better tools for accurate retrospective reporting of mental disorder symptoms have the potential for broad scientific benefits.
We designed a life history calendar (LHC) to support this task, and randomized more than 1000 individuals to each arm of a retrospective diagnostic interview with and without the LHC. We also conducted a careful validation with the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition.
Results demonstrate that—just as with frequent measurement longitudinal studies—use of an LHC in retrospective measurement can more than double reports of lifetime experience of some mental disorders.
The LHC significantly improves retrospective reporting of mental disorders. This tool is practical for application in both large cross-sectional surveys of the general population and clinical intake of new patients.
Rapidly advancing technology often pulls the regulatory field along as it evolves to incorporate new concepts, better tools, and more finely honed equipment. When the area impacted by the technological advancement is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), a gap develops between the technology and the guidelines that govern its application. Subsequently, there are challenges in determining appropriate regulatory pathways for evolving products at the initial research and developmental stages. Myriad factors necessitate several rounds of iterative review and the involvement of multiple divisions within the FDA. To better understand the regulatory science issues roiling around the area of additive manufacturing of medical products, a group of experts, led by a Clinical and Translational Science Award working group, convened the Regulatory Science to Advance Precision Medicine at the Fall Forum to discuss some of the current regulatory science roadblocks.