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The SiGe:C hetero-structure bipolar transistor (HBT) has turned into a key technology for wireless communication. This paper describes the metrology tools for SiGe epitaxy process control. Two types of analysis are critical, (1) routine control of SiGe base and Si cap thicknesses, location and thickness of the doping layer, doping dose, Ge composition profile, and their uniformity across the wafer; and (2) root-cause analysis on non-routine problems. This is achieved by developing a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique allowing a thickness measurement with a reproducibility better than 3 Å. Charge-compensated low-energy secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) using an optical conductivity enhancement (OCE) allows a Ge composition measurement to a required precision of 0.5 at. %.
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