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Why have accounts of botched executions not played a larger role in the struggle to end capital punishment in the United States? In the twentieth century, when methods of execution became increasingly controlled and sterilized, botched executions would seem to have had real abolitionist potential. This article examines newspaper coverage of botched executions to determine and describe the way they were presented to the public and why they have contributed little to the abolitionist cause. Although botched executions reveal pain, violence, and inhumanity associated with state killing, newspaper coverage of these events neutralizes the impact of that revelation. Throughout the last century, newspapers presented botched executions as misfortunes rather than injustices. We identify three distinct modes by which newspaper coverage neutralized the impact of botched executions and presented them as misfortunes rather than as systemic injustices: (1) the dual narratives of sensationalism and recuperation in the early years of the twentieth century, (2) the decline of sensationalism and the rise of “professionalism” in the middle of the century, and (3) the emphasis on “balanced” reporting toward the end of the century.
There have been few published controlled studies of multi-component weight management programmes that include an energy deficit diet (EDD), for adults with intellectual disabilities and obesity. The objective of this study was to conduct a single-blind, cluster randomised controlled trial comparing a multi-component weight management programme to a health education programme. Participants were randomised to either TAKE 5, which included an EDD or Waist Winners Too (WWToo), based on health education principles. Outcomes measured at baseline, 6 months (after a weight loss phase) and 12 months (after a 6-month weight maintenance phase), by a researcher blinded to treatment allocation, included: weight; BMI; waist circumference; physical activity; sedentary behaviour and health-related quality of life. The recruitment strategy was effective with fifty participants successfully recruited. Both programmes were acceptable to adults with intellectual disabilities, evidenced by high retention rates (90 %). Exploratory efficacy analysis revealed that at 12 months there was a trend for more participants in TAKE 5 (50·0 %) to achieve a clinically important weight loss of 5–10 %, in comparison to WWToo (20·8 %) (OR 3·76; 95 % CI 0·92, 15·30; 0·064). This study found that a multi-component weight management programme that included an EDD, is feasible and an acceptable approach to weight loss when tailored to meet the needs of adults with intellectual disabilities and obesity.
Young Onset Dementia (YOD), defined by first symptoms of cognitive or behavioral decline occurring before the age of 65 years, is relatively rare compared to dementia of later onset, but it is associated with diagnostic difficulty and heavy burden on affected individuals and their informal carers. Existing health and social care structures rarely meet the needs of YOD patients. Internet-based interventions are a novel format of delivering health-related education, counseling, and support to this vulnerable yet underserved group.
The RHAPSODY (Research to Assess Policies and Strategies for Dementia in the Young) project is a European initiative to improve care for people with YOD by providing an internet-based information and skill-building program for family carers. The e-learning program focuses on managing problem behaviors, dealing with role change, obtaining support, and looking after oneself. It will be evaluated in a pilot study in three countries using a randomized unblinded design with a wait-list control group. Participants will be informal carers of people with dementia in Alzheimer's disease or behavioral-variant Frontotemporal degeneration with an onset before the age of 65 years. The primary outcome will be caregiving self-efficacy after 6 weeks of program use. As secondary outcomes, caregivers’ stress and burden, carer health-related quality of life, caring-related knowledge, patient problem behaviors, and user satisfaction will be assessed. Program utilization will be monitored and a health-economic evaluation will also be performed.
The RHAPSODY project will add to the evidence on the potential and limitations of a conveniently accessible, user-friendly, and comprehensive internet-based intervention as an alternative for traditional forms of counseling and support in healthcare, aiming to optimize care and support for people with YOD and their informal caregivers.
Despite evidence for the effectiveness of structured psychological
therapies for bipolar disorder no psychological interventions have been
specifically designed to enhance personal recovery for individuals with
recent-onset bipolar disorder.
A pilot study to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a new
intervention, recovery-focused cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT),
designed in collaboration with individuals with recent-onset bipolar
disorder intended to improve clinical and personal recovery outcomes.
A single, blind randomised controlled trial compared treatment as usual
(TAU) with recovery-focused CBT plus TAU (n = 67).
Recruitment and follow-up rates within 10% of pre-planned targets to
12-month follow-up were achieved. An average of 14.15 h (s.d. = 4.21) of
recovery-focused CBT were attended out of a potential maximum of 18 h.
Compared with TAU, recovery-focused CBT significantly improved personal
recovery up to 12-month follow-up (Bipolar Recovery Questionnaire mean
score 310.87, 95% CI 75.00–546.74 (s.e. = 120.34), P =
0.010, d=0.62) and increased time to any mood relapse
during up to 15 months follow-up (χ2 = 7.64,
P<0.006, estimated hazard ratio (HR) = 0.38, 95%
CI 0.18–0.78). Groups did not differ with respect to medication
Recovery-focused CBT seems promising with respect to feasibility and
potential clinical effectiveness. Clinical- and cost-effectiveness now
need to be reliably estimated in a definitive trial.
Under the strains of war, political leadership developed into an extremely demanding business, which could only succeed with the support of a sophisticated bureaucracy. Civil-military relations comprise certainly more aspects than just the question of leadership in war. This chapter focuses on Civil-military relations in the Great Powers during the Great War. Civil-military relations in Japan had since the Meiji Restoration been problematical, with the army and the navy being in very powerful positions. The turning point in the European theatre came in 1916/17. By then, the means of traditional, almost conservative, warfare had been exhausted. Civil-military relations under the impact of the slide towards total war produced different outcomes. In some cases, the efforts of those in charge of the war ended in collapse and revolution. In others, they resulted in victory, in part by sheer luck.
This historiographical review explores the impact of new interdisciplinary, comparative, and cultural approaches to studying the First World War upon the historiography, as the centenary of the conflict approaches in 2014. It assesses to what extent these approaches have led to new consensus regarding five key established historiographical questions: why did war break out; why did the Allies win; were the generals to blame for the high casualty rates; how did men endure trench warfare; and to what extent did civilian society accept and endorse the war effort? It also examines how these historiographical approaches have led to the emergence of new themes – in particular, military occupation, radicalization, race, and the wartime body – in the war's historiography. Ultimately, it concludes that how the war is understood has undergone radical revision since the 1990s as a result of these changes.
Segmental variation in maternal speech to children changes over time. This study investigated variation in non-citation speech processes in a longitudinal, 26-hour corpus of maternal northern Australian English. Recordings were naturalistic parent–child interactions when children (N=4) were 1;6, 2;0, and 2;6. The mothers' speech was phonetically transcribed and analyzed. Based on previous sociophonetic research showing proportional changes in speech variants in maternal speech as children get older, it was predicted that deletion of word-initial /h/ and word-final /v/, processes common in non-citation speech, would increase over time. Instead results showed a non-linear change in deletion within a stable set of lexical items. Deletion proportionately increased between 1;6 and 2;0 and decreased between 2;0 and 2;6. Further analysis indicated increased deletion was not accounted for by changes in speech rate, which only marginally increased over time. Findings suggest mothers fine-tune differentially over time as children's receptive and productive language knowledge develops.
In prostate permanent implants using 131Cs seeds, the prostatic edema developed during the implantation procedure, increases the separation between the seeds. This leads to a decrease in the prostate coverage and thus causes an edema induced dose reduction, which results in an increase in tumour cell surviving fraction (SF) with a corresponding decrease in tumour control probability (TCP). To investigate the impact of edema on the SF and the TCP, the expression of the SF of the linear quadratic (LQ) model was extended to account for the effects of edema using the exponential nature of edema resolution and the dose delivered to the edematous prostate. The SF and the TCP for edematous prostate implants were calculated for 31 patients who underwent real time 131Cs permanent seed implantation. The dose delivered to the edematous prostate was calculated to compute the SF and the TCP for these patients for edema half lives (EHL) ranging from 4 days to 34 days and for edemas of magnitudes (M0) varying from 5 to 60% of the actual prostate volume.
A reduction in the dose delivered to the edematous prostate was found with the increase of EHL and edema magnitude which results in an increase of the SF, and corresponding decrease in the TCP. The dose reductions in 131Cs implants varied from 1.1% (for EHL = 4 days and M0 = 5%) to 32.3% (for EHL = 34 days and M0 = 60%). These are higher than the dose reduction in 125I implants, which vary from 0.3% (for EHL = 4 days and M0 = 5%) to 17.5% (for EHL = 34 days and M0 = 60%). As edema half life increased from 4 days to 34 days and edema magnitude increased from 5 to 60% the SF increased by 4.57 log, and the TCP decreased by 0.80. Compensation of edema induced increase in the SF and decrease in the TCP in 131Cs seed implants should be carefully done by redefining seed positions with the guidance of post-needle plans. The presented model in this study can be used to estimate the SF or the TCP for pre plan or real time permanent prostate implants using day 0 post-implant CT images.
Partial fin-clipping is a non-lethal sampling technique commonly used to sample tissue for molecular genetic studies of fish. The effect of this technique was tested on seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) as they have several peculiar biological characteristics when compared with other fish and are on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Partial fin-clipping of the seahorse dorsal fin was evaluated on Hippocampus kuda. The fish were assessed for short-term effects (fin re-growth time) as well as the longer term effects (growth and mortality) of partial fin clipping over a four month period. Total fin re-growth occurred between 2 and 4 weeks with no significant difference observed in the fin re-growth time between sexes. There was no significant difference between the mortality rate/growth rate of clipped versus unclipped seahorses. Results indicate partial fin-clipping has no significant effect on seahorses, and should be considered as a useful method for tissue sampling.
Introduction: pre-war civilian expectations of wartime captivity
In 1886, the German artist Anton von Werner depicted a French soldier being taken prisoner during the Franco-Prussian war. The image is one of chivalry, order and calm; the prisoner kisses his wife goodbye, while one of his captors gently cradles the couple's baby. The reality of capture in the 1870–1 conflict, in which the majority of French prisoners captured at Sedan endured catastrophic living conditions at Inges before their transport to Germany, is excluded here. Clearly, this imaginative artistic interpretation, by one of Wilhelmine Germany's leading court painters, provided a sanitised version of the historical realities of the state's foundational conflict. However, it also offers an important late nineteenth-century interpretation of wartime capture. Two key characteristics of the painting stand out: it presents a highly romantic vision of the prisoner of war and it makes no reference to wartime violence.
In fact, a romantic view of the prisoner of war, and the dissociation of violence from wartime capture, marked pre-1914 attitudes across Europe. Werner's image reflected a widespread cultural tendency to deny the concomitant historical relationship between wartime capture, violence and power. Believing that uncontrolled violence was a feature of man in his primitive state, Europeans thought their own cultural progress towards ever more civilised societies had eradicated violent behaviour towards prisoners of war by western European armies.
In this groundbreaking study, Heather Jones provides the first in-depth and comparative examination of violence against First World War prisoners. She shows how the war radicalised captivity treatment in Britain, France and Germany, dramatically undermined international law protecting prisoners of war and led to new forms of forced prisoner labour and reprisals, which fuelled wartime propaganda that was often based on accurate prisoner testimony. This book reveals how, during the conflict, increasing numbers of captives were not sent to home front camps but retained in western front working units to labour directly for the British, French and German armies - in the German case, by 1918, prisoners working for the German army endured widespread malnutrition and constant beatings. Dr Jones examines the significance of these new, violent trends and their later legacy, arguing that the Great War marked a key turning-point in the twentieth-century evolution of the prison camp.