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Developing low-cost and high-performance hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts is essential for the development of hydrogen energy. While transition metal sulfides are reported as promising HER electrocatalysts, their performance still requires further improvement for practical application. In this work, we report a strategy to construct NiSx@MoS2 heterostructures with a well-defined interface structure by growing NiSx nanoclusters on MoS2 nanosheets through atomic layer deposition (ALD). NiSx@MoS2 heterostructures exhibit strongly enhanced HER activity with lower overpotential and faster reaction dynamic compared to MoS2 and NiSx single phases. The enhanced performance is attributed to improved adsorption of the reaction intermediates and the facilitated charge transfer process near the MoS2/NiSx interfaces. Besides high activity, NiSx@MoS2 heterostructures also exhibit high stability in alkaline media. The methodology and knowledge in this work can guide the rational design of high-performance electrocatalysts through hetero-interface engineering.
The microbiota–gut–brain axis, especially the microbial tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis and metabolism pathway (MiTBamp), may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, studies on the MiTBamp in MDD are lacking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gut microbiota composition and the MiTBamp in MDD patients.
We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 26 MDD patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs). In addition to the microbiota community and the MiTBamp analyses, we also built a classification based on the Random Forests (RF) and Boruta algorithm to identify the gut microbiota as biomarkers for MDD.
The Bacteroidetes abundance was strongly reduced whereas that of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the MDD patients compared with the abundance in the HCs. Most noteworthy, the MDD patients had increased levels of Bifidobacterium, which is commonly used as a probiotic. Four Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologies (KOs) (K01817, K11358, K01626, K01667) abundances in the MiTBamp were significantly lower in the MDD group. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between the K01626 abundance and the HAMD scores in the MDD group. Finally, RF classification at the genus level can achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.890.
The present findings enabled a better understanding of the changes in gut microbiota and the related Trp pathway in MDD. Alterations of the gut microbiota may have the potential as biomarkers for distinguishing MDD patients form HCs.
The flow over a square cylinder controlled by a slot synthetic jet positioned at the front surface is investigated experimentally at different excitation frequencies. The Reynolds number based on the free-stream velocity and the side length of the square cylinder is 1000. The flow visualization was conducted using the laser-induced fluorescence technique. The velocity fields upstream and downstream of the square cylinder were measured synchronously with the two-dimensional time-resolved particle image velocimetry technique. Both the evolution of vortex structures and the characteristic frequencies of upstream and downstream flow fields are presented. The flow dynamics vary significantly with the excitation frequency at a fixed stroke length. During one excitation cycle, the synthetic jet vortex pair deflects to one side and later swings to the other side at a quite small excitation frequency of
, while it only deflects toward one side and does not turn to the other side at
. Compared with the natural case, the wake characteristics for the above two cases are not changed much by the synthetic jet adopted. At a moderate excitation frequency of
, the synthetic jet deflects upwards and downwards alternatively. The upstream flow field has a dominant frequency identical to half of the excitation frequency. Under the perturbations of the synthetic jet, two wake vortex pairs are formed per shedding cycle with a shedding frequency equal to that of the square cylinder without control. At a higher excitation frequency of
, the synthetic jet keeps deflecting to one side, and the upstream flow field is governed by the excitation frequency. The flow separation on the deflected side is suppressed effectively, and no periodic vortex shedding can be observed in the wake. Statistically, the velocity profiles also change with control. The recirculation bubble length in the wake is shortened, and the time-averaged velocity fluctuation is weakened remarkably. The control effects of the synthetic jet and the continuous jet are compared in this paper when placed at the front surface of a square cylinder.
Anatase phase NOx/S6+–TiO2 (x= 0, 1) film with high solar-driven activity has been successfully prepared via electro-assisted oxidation processes. The morphological and structural properties of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, while the optical property was detected by UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the NOx/S6+–TiO2 film was composed of “flower-like” microvoids structure and displayed broad and strong optical absorption at around 544 and 1500 nm. Transient photocurrent response, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that the generation and separation of photogenerated charges were significantly enhanced under simulated solar irradiation. The NOx/S6+–TiO2 film exhibited excellent photoelectrocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange (MO), and the decoloration rate and TOC removal respectively reached 98.97 and 59.44% at 20 min under solar irradiation. The film still had good stability after reusing ten times. Furthermore, a possible mechanism of photoelectrocatalysis was suggested in MO degradation by using NOx/S6+–TiO2 film.
We numerically investigate the passive flight of a flexible
-flyer in a vertically oscillating airflow with zero mean stream. The flexibility of the flyer is introduced by a torsion spring installed at the hinged joint. We study the effects of spring stiffness, density, resting angle and actuation efforts on the hovering performance. The results suggest that the occurrence of resonance in flexible flyers can result in significantly different performances in flexible and rigid flyers. It is found that flexibility can have two opposing effects, reducing or increasing the actuation efforts for hovering, depending on the range of driving frequency. This result is explained by the modulation of relative motion between the flyer and the imposed background flow due to the involvement of passive angular oscillation. The angular oscillation patterns, the wake symmetry properties and the postural stability behaviours under different driving conditions are also explored. Based on the findings of the present study, the ideal parameter values for stable hovering are suggested. The results of this study offer novel insight into the mechanism by which the flexibility of the flyer affects the passive hovering performance.
Crystal structure and electronic structure of YMnO3 were investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy related techniques. According to the density of states (DOS), the individual interband transitions to energy loss peaks in the low energy loss spectrum were assigned. The hybridization of O 2p with Mn 3d and Y 4d analyzed by the partial DOS was critical to the ferroelectric nature of YMnO3. From the simulation of the energy loss near-edge structure, the fine structure of O K-edge was in good agreement with the experimental spectrum. The valence state of Mn (+3) in YMnO3 was determined by a comparison between experiment and calculations.
Radiocarbon (14C) has become a unique and powerful tracer in source apportionment of atmospheric carbonaceous particles. In this study, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation summit (APEC) held in Beijing in 2014 was used as a demonstration to research the source apportionment of atmosphere PM2.5. We used a 200 kV single stage accelerator mass spectrometer recently completed at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The PM2.5 samples related to above case were collected, and the characteristics of radiocarbon in organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in samples were analyzed using the AMS. The results show that the Before-APEC pollution emission mode is different from the During-APEC and After-APEC pollution emission modes. For Before-APEC, During-APEC and After-APEC, the average values of fossil carbon fraction of OC are 0.463, 0.431 and 0.615, respectively, and those of EC are 0.644, 0.561 and 0.687. The fossil source contributions of traffic activities using fossil fuels to OC and EC are 15.8 % and 21.9 %, respectively. The fossil source contributions of industrial activities to OC and EC are 38.0 % and 8.2 %, respectively. It is about 7–10 days that is needed to take to regenerate the PM2.5 pollution caused by human activities.
Different treatment options for carotid in-stent restenosis (ISR) have been reported with good outcome, including carotid endarterectomy (CEA), repeated carotid angioplasty stenting (CAS) and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with drug-coated balloons (DCBs). However, the optimal treatment option for ISR has not yet been determined. A systematic literature search was performed in the databases of Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, and unpublished data from clinicaltrials.gov from 1990 to March 1, 2019. Studies were enrolled if they reported treatment strategies for carotid ISR treatment and met the inclusion criteria. After study inclusions, data were extracted and summarized. Totally 25 cross-sectional studies were included, containing 5 comparative studies, 16 studies using repeated PTA, and 4 studies adopting CEA treatment. Our study summarized the current available data, showing that all the studies could effectively relieve the carotid ISR by significantly improving the angiographic stenosis and decreasing the peak systolic velocity values. Meanwhile, CEA treatment had the best long-term effects in relieving restenosis, while re-PTA with stenting/balloon angioplasty had a certain rate of restenosis, ranging from 33% to 83%. Furthermore, re-PTA/stenting and balloon angioplasty treatment had less complications compared with CEA. Also, we analyzed the risk factors that might affect the long-term prognosis of carotid ISR patients. The therapeutic measures for carotid ISR had their own features, with CEA had the highest efficacy while re-PTA/stenting and balloon angioplasty were with less complications. More large-scale comparative clinical studies are needed to further ascertain the best strategies.
Hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE) is a potentially fatal disease caused by the larval growth of Echinococcus multilocularis. We analysed the clinical data of 178 consecutive HAE patients treated with definitive radical surgery at our institution. According to the surgical approach: group A patients underwent direct radical hepatic resection; group B patients first underwent percutaneous puncture external drainage, followed by radical hepatic resection 2 months later; group C patients underwent a two-step hepatic resection; and group D patients underwent liver transplantation. The baseline characteristics, mortality, postoperative complications and recurrence rates were evaluated. Symptoms were present in 79.8% (142/178) patients. Bi-lobar lesion was found in 34 (19.1%, 34/178) patients, 47.2% (84/178) of whom had ⩾2 lesions each. There were no intraoperative deaths. The postoperative mortality was 2.29% in group A, 8.62% in group D and 0% in groups B and C. The main cause of death was a serious postoperative complication (Clavien–Dindo grades III–V). Patients were followed-up systematically for a median of 35.8 months (8–72) without recurrence. Active HAE should be treated by radical liver resection, and the complicated alveolar echinococcosis of the liver has been managed whenever possible using principles of radical liver resection by experienced hepatic surgeons.
Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis are the common causes of human echinococcosis in China. An accurate species identification tool for human echinococcosis is needed as the treatments and prognosis are different among species. The present work demonstrates a method for the simultaneous detection of these three Echinococcus species based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR). Specific primers of this mPCR were designed based on the mitochondrial genes and determined by extensive tests. The method can successfully detect either separated or mixed target species, and generate expected amplicons of distinct size for each species. Sensitivity of the method was tested by serially diluted DNA, showing a detection threshold as less as 0.32 pg for both E. granulosus s.s. and E. canadensis, and 1.6 pg for E. multilocularis. Specificity assessed against 18 other parasites was found to be 100% except weakly cross-react with E. shiquicus. The assay was additionally applied to 69 echinococcosis patients and 38 healthy persons, confirming the high reliability of the method. Thus, the mPCR described here has high application potential for clinical identification purposes, and can further provide a useful tool for evaluation of serology and imaging method.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of Scutellaria baicalensis extracts (SBE) on intestinal health in terms of morphology, barrier integrity and immune responses in weaned piglets challenged with Escherichia coli K88. A total of seventy-two weaned piglets were assigned into two groups to receive a basal diet without including antibiotic additives or the basal diet supplemented 1000 mg SBE/kg diet for 14 d. On day 15, twelve healthy piglets from each group were selected to expose to oral administration of either 10 ml 1 × 109 colony-forming units of E. coli K88 or the vehicle control. After 48 h of E.coli K88 challenge, blood was sampled, and then all piglets were killed humanely for harvesting jejunal and ileal samples. Dietary supplementation of SBE significantly decreased diarrhoea frequency and improved feed conversion ratio (P < 0·05). SBE supplementation to E.coli K88-challenged piglets improved villous height and villous height/crypt depth (P < 0·05), recovered the protein expression of occludin and zonula occludens-2 in both the jejunum and ileum (P < 0·05), and mitigated the increases in plasma IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IgA and IgG (P < 0·05). Meanwhile, dietary SBE effectively inhibited the stimulation of NF-κB, P38 and TNF-α as well as IL-1β in the small intestine of piglets challenged by E. coli K88 and prevented the activation of NF-κB/P38 signalling pathways (P < 0·05). Collectively, SBE supplementation can potently attenuate diarrhoea in weaning piglets and decrease inflammatory cytokine expressions through inhibiting the NF-κB and P38 signalling pathways.
With the increasing availability of vehicle telemetry technology, there is great potential for Advanced Automatic Collision Notification (AACN) systems to improve trauma outcomes by detecting patients at-risk for severe injury and facilitating early transport to trauma centers.
National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data from 1999-2013 were used to construct a logistic regression model (injury severity prediction [ISP] model) predicting the probability that one or more occupants in planar, non-rollover motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) would have Injury Severity Score (ISS) 15+ injuries. Variables included principal direction of force (PDOF), change in velocity (Delta-V), multiple impacts, presence of any older occupant (≥55 years old), presence of any female occupant, presence of right-sided passenger, belt use, and vehicle type. The model was validated using medical records and 2008-2011 crash data from AACN-enabled Michigan (USA) vehicles identified from OnStar (OnStar Corporation; General Motors; Detroit, Michigan USA) records. To compare the ISP to previously established protocols, a literature search was performed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of first responder identification of ISS 15+ for MVC occupants.
The study population included 924 occupants in 836 crash events. The ISP model had a sensitivity of 72.7% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 41%-91%) and specificity of 93% (95% CI 92%-95%) for identifying ISS 15+ occupants injured in planar MVCs. The current standard 2006 Field Triage Decision Scheme (FTDS) was 56%-66% sensitive and 75%-88% specific in identifying ISS 15+ patients.
The ISP algorithm comparably is more sensitive and more specific than current field triage in identifying MVC patients at-risk for ISS 15+ injuries. This real-world field study shows telemetry data transmitted before dispatch of emergency medical systems can be helpful to quickly identify patients who require urgent transfer to trauma centers.
We report a systematic study of spatial variations of the probability density function (PDF)
for temperature fluctuations
in turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection along the central axis of two different convection cells. One of the convection cells is a vertical thin disk and the other is an upright cylinder of aspect ratio unity. By changing the distance
away from the bottom conducting plate, we find the functional form of the measured
in both cells evolves continuously with distinct changes in four different flow regions, namely, the thermal boundary layer, mixing zone, turbulent bulk region and cell centre. By assuming temperature fluctuations in different flow regions are all made from two independent sources, namely, a homogeneous (turbulent) background which obeys Gaussian statistics and non-uniform thermal plumes with an exponential distribution, we obtain the analytic expressions of
in four different flow regions, which are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. Our work thus provides a unique theoretical framework with a common set of parameters to quantitatively describe the effect of turbulent background, thermal plumes and their spatio-temporal intermittency on the temperature PDF
To determine the 237Np concentration originating from global fallout in the environment, samples were collected from Guangxi, south of China, and measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at CIRCE. Serials standard samples and environment samples were prepared and measured using 242Pu as a tracer. The result indicates that the detection limit of 237Np as low as 10–15 g can be obtained. The concentration of 237Np in the environmental samples is less than 49.09 pg/kg (i.e. 1.280 mBq/kg), and the most probable value of 237Np is approximately 20 pg/kg (i.e. 0.53 mBq/kg).
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of curcumin on insulin resistance (IR) and hepatic lipid accumulation in intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). Rats with a normal birth weight (NBW) or IUGR were fed basic diets (NBW and IUGR groups) or basic diets supplemented with curcumin (NBW-C and IUGR-C groups) from 6 to 12 weeks. Rats in the IUGR group showed higher levels of glucose and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) (P < 0·05) than in the NBW group. The livers of IUGR rats exhibited higher (P < 0·05) concentration of TAG and lower (P < 0·05) activities of lipolysis enzymes compared with the normal rats. In response to dietary curcumin supplementation, concentrations of serum insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR, pyruvate, TAG, total cholesterol and NEFA in the liver were decreased (P < 0·05). The concentrations of glycogen and activities of lipolysis enzymes in the liver were increased (P < 0·05) in the IUGR-C group compared with the IUGR group. These results were associated with lower (P < 0·05) phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1, protein kinase B or Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3β and expressions of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase (FASN); decreased expressions for Cd36, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (Srebf1) and Fasn; increased (P < 0·05) expression of PPARα; and expressions for Ppara and hormone-sensitive lipase in the liver of IUGR-C rats than the IUGR rats. Maternal malnutrition caused IR and lipid accumulation in the liver. Curcumin supplementation prevented IR by regulating insulin signalling pathways and attenuated hepatic lipid accumulation.
Global inequity in access to and availability of essential mental health services is well recognized. The mental health treatment gap is approximately 50% in all countries, with up to 90% of people in the lowest-income countries lacking access to required mental health services. Increased investment in global mental health (GMH) has increased innovation in mental health service delivery in LMICs. Situational analyses in areas where mental health services and systems are poorly developed and resourced are essential when planning for research and implementation, however, little guidance is available to inform methodological approaches to conducting these types of studies. This scoping review provides an analysis of methodological approaches to situational analysis in GMH, including an assessment of the extent to which situational analyses include equity in study designs. It is intended as a resource that identifies current gaps and areas for future development in GMH. Formative research, including situational analysis, is an essential first step in conducting robust implementation research, an essential area of study in GMH that will help to promote improved availability of, access to and reach of mental health services for people living with mental illness in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While strong leadership in this field exists, there remain significant opportunities for enhanced research representing different LMICs and regions.
Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is reported to be associated with cancer development. To investigate the roles ANXA2 plays during the development of cancer, the RNAi method was used to inhibit the ANXA2 expression in caco2 (human colorectal cancer cell line) and SMMC7721 (human hepatocarcinoma cell line) cells. The results showed that when the expression of ANXA2 was efficiently inhibited, the growth and motility of both cell lines were significantly decreased, and the development of the motility relevant microstructures, such as pseudopodia, filopodia, and the polymerization of microfilaments and microtubules were obviously inhibited. The cancer cell apoptosis was enhanced without obvious significance. The possible regulating pathway in the process was also predicted and discussed. Our results suggested that ANXA2 plays important roles in maintaining the malignancy of colorectal and hepatic cancer by enhancing the cell proliferation, motility, and development of the motility associated microstructures of cancer cells based on a possible complicated signal pathway.
Triploid and pentaploid breeding is of great importance in agricultural production, but it is not always easy to obtain double ploidy parents. However, in fishes, chromosome ploidy is diversiform, which may provide natural parental resources for triploid and pentaploid breeding. Both tetraploid and hexaploid exist in Schizothorax fishes, which were thought to belong to different subfamilies with tetraploid Percocypris fishes in morphology, but they are sister genera in molecule. Fortunately, the pentaploid hybrid fishes have been successfully obtained by hybridization of Schizothorax wangchiachii (♀, 2n = 6X = 148) × Percocypris pingi (♂, 2n = 4X = 98). To understand the genetic and morphological difference among the hybrid fishes and their parents, four methods were used in this study: morphology, karyotype, red blood cell (RBC) DNA content determination and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR). In morphology, the hybrid fishes were steady, and between their parents with no obvious preference. The chromosome numbers of P. pingi have been reported as 2n = 4X = 98. In this study, the karyotype of S. wangchiachii was 2n = 6X = 148 = 36m + 34sm + 12st + 66t, while that the hybrid fishes was 2n = 5X = 123 = 39m + 28sm + 5st + 51t. Similarly, the RBC DNA content of the hybrid fishes was intermediate among their parents. In ISSR, the within-group genetic diversity of hybrid fishes was higher than that of their parents. Moreover, the genetic distance of hybrid fishes between P. pingi and S.wangchiachii was closely related to that of their parental ploidy, suggesting that parental genetic material stably coexisted in the hybrid fishes. This is the first report to show a stable pentaploid F1 hybrids produced by hybridization of a hexaploid and a tetraploid in aquaculture.