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Polyglycolide (PGA) materials have been widely used in the medical field, but the degradation mechanism in the natural environment is still unclear. High-viscosity PGA was prepared by using twin-screw reaction extrusion polymerization. The mass and intrinsic viscosity of PGA samples, the pH of the solution surrounding the PGA samples in water, and the number of degradation products resulting from the degradation of the PGA samples were studied under different conditions and at different temperatures. PGA does not degrade at 70 °C in either dry air or in a vacuum. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential spectroscopy revealed that the PGA samples in water at 70 °C for 40 days had a substantially reduced mass and substantially altered thermal behavior when compared with the control sample (undegraded PGA sample). The degradation of the PGA samples in humid conditions at 70 °C was similar to the degradation of the samples in water at 70 °C. The results of this study indicate that water and water vapor (moisture) in the natural environment are the main causes of PGA degradation, and higher temperatures accelerate the degradation process, which shortens the shelf life and life of PGA.
This research involves a compact wideband circularly-polarized antenna array, which consists of a sequential rotating phase feed network, 2 × 2 mushroom-type metamaterial (MTM) unit, and so on. Each antenna array unit contains a microstrip feedline, an L-shaped slot antenna, and so on. The MTM-based antennas were incorporated with a sequential-phase network of sequentially rotated series-parallel feed to achieve wideband operation. The operational bandwidth and the radiation model in the high-frequency area were improved through the adjustment of spacing between the L-shaped slots while maintaining the size and structure of the MTM. The proposed design had dimensions of 80 mm × 80 mm × 3.5 mm (~1.64 λ0 × 1.64 λ0 × 0.072 λ0 at 6.15 GHz), and it was simulated, fabricated, and tested.
The clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 were analysed to determine the factors influencing the prognosis and virus shedding time to facilitate early detection of disease progression. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationships among prognosis, clinical characteristics and laboratory indexes. The predictive value of this model was assessed with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, calibration and internal validation. The viral shedding duration was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method, and the prognostic factors were analysed by univariate log-rank analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model. A retrospective study was carried out with patients with COVID-19 in Tianjin, China. A total of 185 patients were included, 27 (14.59%) of whom were severely ill at the time of discharge and three (1.6%) of whom died. Our findings demonstrate that patients with an advanced age, diabetes, a low PaO2/FiO2 value and delayed treatment should be carefully monitored for disease progression to reduce the incidence of severe disease. Hypoproteinaemia and the fever duration warrant special attention. Timely interventions in symptomatic patients and a time from symptom onset to treatment <4 days can shorten the duration of viral shedding.
Most skarns are found near the pluton or in lithologies containing at least some limestone. However, recent research has shown that neither a pluton nor limestone is necessarily required to form a skarn deposit. The newly discovered Bagenheigeqier Pb–Zn skarn deposit is located in NE China. The skarn and Pb–Zn orebodies occur in volcanic lithologies of the Baiyin’gaolao Formation and are controlled by NE–SW-trending faults. The nearest pluton is a granite porphyry, at a distance of 20–250 m from the orebodies. Five paragenetic stages at Bagenheigeqier are recognized: (I) skarn; (II) oxide; (III) early sulphide; (IV) late sulphide; and (V) late quartz–calcite. The fluid inclusions from stages II to V homogenized at temperatures of 402–452, 360–408, 274–319 and 167–212°C, respectively. The hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions (δ18OH2O, –12.4‰ to +9.3‰; δDH2O, –156.5‰ to –99.1‰) indicate that the ore-fluids were primarily of magmatic origin, with the proportion of meteoric water increasing during the progression of ore formation. Sulphur isotope values (δ34SVCDT, 1.4–5.5‰), lead isotope values (206Pb/204Pb, 18.184–18.717; 207Pb/204Pb, 15.520–15.875; 208Pb/204Pb, 37.991–38.379) and the initial 187Os/188Os ratios of the pyrite (0.307 ± 0.06) suggest that the ore metals were derived from the granite porphyry and Baiyin’gaolao Formation. Re–Os dating of pyrite intergrown with galena and sphalerite yielded a well-constrained isochron age of 151.2 ± 4.7 Ma, which is coeval with the laser ablation – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry zircon U–Pb age of 154 ± 1 Ma for the granite porphyry. The deposit was therefore formed during Late Jurassic time.
To improve speech emotion recognition, a U-acoustic words emotion dictionary (AWED) features model is proposed based on an AWED. The method models emotional information from acoustic words level in different emotion classes. The top-list words in each emotion are selected to generate the AWED vector. Then, the U-AWED model is constructed by combining utterance-level acoustic features with the AWED features. Support vector machine and convolutional neural network are employed as the classifiers in our experiment. The results show that our proposed method in four tasks of emotion classification all provides significant improvement in unweighted average recall.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: This study examines sex differences in brain structure in youths with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). We use measures of gray matter volume (GMV) in regions-of-interest implicated in the pathophysiology of conduct problems and a whole-brain analysis of cortical thickness. We also examine unique associations between brain structure and callous-unemotional traits. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This study included 90 children with a DBD (30 females) aged 8-16 and 50 Healthy Controls (20 females) matched for age and IQ. Children received a diagnostic evaluation using the K-SADS. Pre-processing was conducted using FreeSurfer. For ROI analyses, multivariate GLM models were conducted in SPSS for estimates of GMV to examine the main effects of diagnosis and sex, and sex-by-diagnosis interactions. Whole-brain analyses were conducted in FreeSurfer. Associations were examined between structure and parent ratings of callous-unemotional (CU) traits using the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits in regression analyses in the DBD group, while controlling for the variance in aggressive behavior using the Child Behavior Checklist Aggressive Behavior Scale. All analyses controlled for differences in intracranial volume. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Relative to controls, children with DBD showed reduced GMV in the bilateral amygdala (left: p = .004; right: p = .04). Sex-by-diagnosis interactions were observed in the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (p = .004), right insula (p = .001), right inferior frontal gyrus (p = .02), and bilateral anterior cingulate (left: p = .02; right: p = .01) in which DBD males showed lower and DBD females showed higher GMV relative to respective controls. For whole-brain analyses, a significant sex-by-diagnosis interaction was observed in the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex and supramarginal gyrus indicating that DBD males showed lower and DBD females showed higher cortical thickness relative to respective controls. Sex-by-CU traits interactions were observed for left amygdala and ACC volumes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The current study provides evidence of reduced amygdala volume in children with DBD, and interactions between sex and diagnosis in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and supramarginal gyrus, which may have implications for identifying sex-sensitive neural biomarkers. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: Disclosures: Dr. Sukhodolsky receives royalties from Guilford Press for a treatment manual on CBT for anger and aggression in children. Drs. Ibrahim, He, Pelphrey, McCarthy, and Mr. Li have no biomedical financial interests or potential conflicts of interest to declare related to this present study.
The storage root of alligatorweed [Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.] growing in terrestrial habitats is an important metamorphic organ for its propagation, overwintering, and spread. However, the regulatory mechanism adventitious root expansion to form storage roots is still unclear. To reveal the changes accompanying the root-swelling process, we quantified sugar, soluble protein, and phytohormone content in adventitious and storage roots. Results demonstrated that sucrose, fructose, and soluble protein increased in storage roots, whereas abscisic acid (ABA), indoleacetic acid (IAA), brassinosteroid (BR), gibberellin, jasmonic acid, and cytokinin (trans-zeatin [tZ] and isopentenyladenine [iP] and the corresponding ribosides tZR and iPR). tZ-type (tZR and tZ) content decreased, suggesting the involvement of sugars and hormones in the formation of storage roots. To further reveal the molecular basis of A. philoxeroides’s ability to form storage roots and provide candidate genes for molecular function analyses, we assembled a de novo transcriptome of A. philoxeroides based on four sets of RNA-sequencing data. According to functional annotation and expression profiling, 42 unigenes involved in sucrose synthesis and hydrolysis were identified, in addition to 70, 58, and 78 unigenes in ABA, BR, and IAA signal transduction, respectively. The quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed 21 unigenes involved in sugar metabolism and hormone signal transduction were differentially expressed during the formation of storage roots. These results revealed metabolic changes during the formation of storage roots and provide candidate genes involved in sugar and phytohormone metabolism in A. philoxeroides.
Outbreaks of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis have been reported in schools in recent decades in China. For early warning and response to infectious disease outbreaks, the Shanghai Infectious Diseases Bud Event Surveillance System (IDBESS) was established in 2016. Bud event is a term used for the early sign of a potential infectious disease outbreak in public settings when the first few cases appear. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics of Norovirus-associated gastroenteritis bud events from June 2016 to December 2017 and to understand factors influencing the severity of events. Data were extracted from the IDBESS, supplemented by field investigations and school absence surveillance. In total, 189 bud events of Norovirus-associated gastroenteritis were reported in schools and kindergartens, affecting 3827 individuals and 52.38% happened in primary schools. The attack rate of Norovirus-associated gastroenteritis was 3.82% on average in students in the affected schools. In each event, case numbers varied between 5 and 148, with a median of 16. The duration of bud events lasted for 2 days on average. School absence happened in 47.93% (1797/3749) of affected students and the average duration of absence was 3.07 days. It was found that a longer delay before reporting was associated with a longer-lasting duration of bud event (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.65, 3.07). In conclusion, ascribed to the sensitive threshold for alerting and the timely field investigation, the surveillance of bud events of Norovirus-associated gastroenteritis is effective in the control of Norovirus infection among preschool children and students in Shanghai.
The extent of intertidal flats in the Yellow Sea region has declined significantly in the past few decades, resulting in severe population declines in several waterbird species. The Yellow Sea region holds the primary stopover sites for many shorebirds during their migration to and from northern breeding grounds. However, the functional roles of these sites in shorebirds’ stopover ecology remain poorly understood. Through field surveys between July and November 2015, we investigated the stopover and moult schedules of migratory shorebirds along the southern Jiangsu coast, eastern China during their southbound migration, with a focus on the ‘Critically Endangered’ Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmaea and ‘Endangered’ Nordmann’s Greenshank Tringa guttifer. Long-term count data indicate that both species regularly occur in globally important number in southern Jiangsu coast, constituting 16.67–49.34% and 64.0–80.67% of their global population estimates respectively, and it is highly likely that most adults undergo their primary moult during this southbound migration stopover. Our results show that Spoon-billed Sandpiper and Nordmann’s Greenshank staged for an extended period of time (66 and 84 days, respectively) to complete their primary moult. On average, Spoon-billed Sandpipers and Nordmann’s Greenshanks started moulting primary feathers on 8 August ± 4.52 and 27 July ± 1.56 days respectively, and their moult durations were 72.58 ± 9.08 and 65.09 ± 2.40 days. In addition, some individuals of several other shorebird species including the ‘Endangered’ Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris, ‘Near Threatened’ Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica, ‘Near Threatened’ Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata and Greater Sand Plover Charadrius leschenaultii also underwent primary moult. Our work highlights the importance of the southern Jiangsu region as the primary moulting ground for these species, reinforcing that conservation of shorebird habitat including both intertidal flats and supratidal roosting sites in this region is critical to safeguard the future of some highly threatened shorebird species.
As electrode materials, metal-organic frameworks always have low electrical conductivity and poor structural stability, which limits its applications in electrochemical fields. Here, Ni-BPDC/GO composites are synthesized using graphene oxide (GO) as a substrate and 4,4′-biphenyldicarboxylic acid (BPDC) as an organic ligand via a hydrothermal approach. The growth mechanism of the Ni-BPDC and Ni-BPDC/GO composites is proposed. In the composites, highly dispersed Ni-BPDC macro-nanostrips are supported on the GO surface in parallel. The presence of GO does not affect the growth and crystalline structure of Ni-BPDC. Compared with the Ni-BPDC, Ni-BPDC/GO composites exhibit higher specific capacitance, rate capability, and operating current density through lowering intrinsic resistance, charge-transfer resistance, and ion diffusion impedance. Moreover, the assembled Ni-BPDC/GO-3//reduced graphene oxide (rGO) asymmetric supercapacitor has large specific capacitance, good cycling stability, and high energy density (16.5 W h/kg at 250 W/kg). Hence, Ni-BPDC/GO composites are a potential electrode material for supercapacitors.
Although the deviations of brain volume deficits in sporadic and familial first-episode schizophrenia patients (FEP) had been presented, the difference of brain asymmetries remained unidentified.
To assess the potential differences of volumetric asymmetries of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) between groups.
To find out the different injury alteration of sporadic FEP and familial FEP.
42 sporadic and 30 familiar drug-naïve FEP with and 72 matched normal controls (NC) were recruited. Participants were assessed with neuropsychological tests and scanned by a 3.0T MRI to obtain T1-weighted and DTI images. Lateralization distribution maps of GM and WM volume were generated by employing optimized voxel-based morphometry. The asymmetries were analyzed by comparing calculating Laterality Index (LI) voxel by voxel.
All three groups showed similar overall brain torque. Familiar FEP have more regional extensive GM asymmetry brain lesions compared to sporadic FEP. There was no shared regional lesion between two groups. LIGM and LIWM in right superior temporal were negatively correlated. Significant negative correlations were also found between LIGM of left superior parietal lobule and LIWM of right superior parietal lobule, and between LIGM of right inferior parietal lobule and LIWM of left inferior parietal lobule. The asymmetry in distinct brain regions were related to cognitive deficits especially in the domains of language and memory.
The two patient groups had different alteration in injuries of brain asymmetry. Familiar FEP has more GM extensive asymmetry brain region, which may correlate with their high genetic burdens.
The aim of this study was to analyze the profile of chest injuries, oxygen therapy for respiratory failure, and the outcomes of victims after the Jiangsu tornado, which occurred on June 23, 2016 in Yancheng City, Jiangsu Province, China.
The clinical records of 144 patients referred to Yancheng City No.1 People’s Hospital from June 23 through June 25 were retrospectively investigated. Of those patients, 68 (47.2%) sustained major chest injuries. The demographic details, trauma history, details of injuries and Abbreviated Injury Scores (AIS), therapy for respiratory failure, surgical procedures, length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay, and mortality were analyzed.
Of the 68 patients, 41 (60.3%) were female and 27 (39.7%) were male. The average age of the injured patients was 57.1 years. Forty-six patients (67.6%) suffered from polytrauma. The mean thoracic AIS of the victims was calculated as 2.85 (SD = 0.76). Rib fracture was the most common chest injury, noted in 56 patients (82.4%). Pulmonary contusion was the next most frequent injury, occurring in 12 patients (17.7%). Ten patients with severe chest trauma were admitted to ICU. The median ICU stay was 11.7 (SD = 8.5) days. Five patients required intubation and ventilation, one patient was treated with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), and four patients were treated with high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). Three patients died during hospitalization. The hospital mortality was 4.41%.
Chest trauma was a common type of injury after tornado. The most frequent thoracic injuries were rib fractures and pulmonary contusion. Severe chest trauma is usually associated with a high incidence of respiratory support requirements and a long length of stay in the ICU. Early initiation of appropriate oxygen therapy was vital to restoring normal respiratory function and saving lives. Going forward, HFNC might be an effective and well-tolerated therapeutic addition to the management of acute respiratory failure in chest trauma.
The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is currently the most common ectoparasite affecting egg-laying hens. Since continuous culture of D. gallinae on birds is a biologically and economically costly endeavour, storage techniques for mites are urgently needed. Effects of temperature on adult and nymph survival were first studied to optimize storage conditions. Then, fecundity of D. gallinae was studied after mites were stored at optimal storage conditions. Results showed the survival rates of protonymphs (42.11%), deutonymphs (8.19%) and females (19.78%) at 5°C after 84 days were higher than those at 0, 25 and 30°C. Thereafter the fecundity and the capability of re-establishing colonies of D. gallinae were evaluated after they were stored for 40 and 80 days at 5°C. After storage, the mean number of eggs showed no statistical difference between treated (5°C for 40 or 80 days) and control groups (25°C for 7 days), while the hatching rates of eggs were in all cases above 97%. The dynamic changes of mite populations and egg numbers showed similar trends to the control group after the stored adult or nymph mites were fed on chicks. Dermanyssus gallinae can be successfully stored at 5°C for 80 days with no interference with the fecundity of mites, and the stored mites could re-establish colonies successfully. Adults and nymphs were two main stages with capability for low temperature storage. These results suggest that low temperature storage is a viable option for colony maintenance of D. gallinae under laboratory conditions.
Dietary habits have been implicated in the development and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Several epidemiological studies attempted to assess the relationship between food groups and the likelihood of NAFLD, but these results were conflicting. The present meta-analysis was conducted to assess the association between food groups and the likelihood of NAFLD. Published literature was retrieved and screened from MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science. Out of 7892 retrieved articles, twenty-four observational studies (fifteen cross-sectional studies and nine case–control studies) met our eligibility criteria and were finally included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Consumption of both red meat and soft drinks contributed to a positive association with NAFLD. Inversely, nut consumption was negatively associated with NAFLD. There were no significant influences on the likelihood of NAFLD about consuming whole grains, refined grains, fish, fruits, vegetables, eggs, dairy products and legumes. This meta-analysis suggests that individuals who consumed more red meat and soft drinks may have a significantly increased likelihood of NAFLD, whereas higher nut intake may be negatively associated with NAFLD. Further prospective studies are required to assess the association between food patterns and NAFLD.
Plant cyclophilin (CYP) is related to chloroplast photoprotection, redox and other growth and developmental regulatory processes and responds to stress and improves tolerance to saline–alkali stress. Besides, it exerts peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity to participate in protein synthesis and folding. In this study, Northern blot was used to analyse the CsCYP1A gene (a CYP gene isolated from a Chlorella species) (accession number: KY207381) of tolerant Chlorella vulgaris in soda saline–alkali soil. The result showed that the expression of the CsCYP1A gene was induced by NaHCO3, NaCl and sorbitol. Additionally, Agrobacterium tumefaciens was used to infect the callus of rice (Oryza sativa var. Longjing11) for genetic transformation. Molecular detection confirmed that transgenic seedlings overexpressing CsCYP1A were obtained by hygromycin selection. Treatment with NaCl and NaHCO3 at the five-leaf stage was performed in the seedlings, and the results showed that there were significant differences between the CsCYP1A overexpressed rice lines and non-transgenic (NT) Longjing11 in terms of plant height, fresh weight, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content and ascorbate peroxidase activity. The CsCYP1A overexpression rice lines had higher tolerance to NaCl and NaHCO3 than NT. The current findings indicate that CsCYP1A can enhance the tolerance of rice to saline–alkali stress possibly through its involvement in reactive oxygen scavenging pathways.
A new fast-growing mycobacterium, designated strain QGD101T, was isolated from the sputum of an 84-year-old man suspected of tuberculosis in Wuhan Medical Treatment Center, Hubei, China. This strain was a gram-staining-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming and catalase-positive bacterium, which was further identified as the NTM by PNB and TCH tests. The moxifloxacin and levofloxacin exhibited strong suppressing function against QGD101T with MIC values of 0.06 and 0.125 µg/ml after drug susceptibility testing of six main antimicrobial agents on mycobacteria. Based on the sequence analysis of 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp65 and 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer, the strain QGD101T could not be identified to a species level. Mycobacterium moriokaense ATCC43059T that shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (98%) with strain QGD101T was actually different in genomes average nucleotide identity (78.74%). In addition, the major cellular fatty acids of QGD101T were determined as C18:1ω9c, C16:0 and C18:2ω6c. The DNA G + C content was 64.9% measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Therefore, the phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of this strain led us to the conclusion that it represents a novel species of mycobacteria, for which the name Mycobacterium hubeiense sp. nov. (type strain QGD101T = CCTCCAA 2017003T = KCTC39927T) was proposed. Thus, the results of this study are very significant for the clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis and future personalised medicine.
To summarize characteristics and commonalities of non-technical competency frameworks for health professionals in emergency and disaster.
An electronic literature search was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC, Scopus, Cochrane database, and Google Scholar to identify original English-language articles related to development, evaluation or application of the nontechnical competency frameworks. Reviewers assessed identified articles for exclusion/inclusion criteria and abstracted data on study design, framework characteristics, and reliability/validity evidence.
Of the 9627 abstracts screened, 65 frameworks were identiﬁed from 94 studies that were eligible for result extraction. Sixty (63.8%) studies concentrated on clinical settings. Common scenarios of the studies were acute critical events in hospitals (44;46.8%) and nonspecified disasters (39;41.5%). Most of the participants (76; 80.9%) were clinical practitioners, and participants in 36 (38.3%) studies were multispecialty. Thirty-three (50.8%) and 42 (64.6%) frameworks had not reported evidence on reliability and validity, respectively. Fourteen of the most commonly involved domains were identified from the frameworks.
Nontechnical competency frameworks applied to multidisciplinary emergency health professionals are heterogeneous in construct and application. A fundamental framework with standardized terminology for the articulation of competency should be developed and validated so as to be accepted and adapted universally by health professionals in all-hazard emergency environment.