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To examine associations between diet and risk of developing gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
Prospective cohort with a median follow-up of 15·8 years. Baseline diet was measured using a FFQ. GERD was defined as self-reported current or history of daily heartburn or acid regurgitation beginning at least 2 years after baseline. Sex-specific logistic regressions were performed to estimate OR for GERD associated with diet quality scores and intakes of nutrients, food groups and individual foods and beverages. The effect of substituting saturated fat for monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat on GERD risk was examined.
A cohort of 20 926 participants (62 % women) aged 40–59 years at recruitment between 1990 and 1994.
For men, total fat intake was associated with increased risk of GERD (OR 1·05 per 5 g/d; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·09; P = 0·016), whereas total carbohydrate (OR 0·89 per 30 g/d; 95 % CI 0·82, 0·98; P = 0·010) and starch intakes (OR 0·84 per 30 g/d; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·94; P = 0·005) were associated with reduced risk. Nutrients were not associated with risk for women. For both sexes, substituting saturated fat for polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat did not change risk. For both sexes, fish, chicken, cruciferous vegetables and carbonated beverages were associated with increased risk, whereas total fruit and citrus were associated with reduced risk. No association was observed with diet quality scores.
Diet is a possible risk factor for GERD, but food considered as triggers of GERD symptoms might not necessarily contribute to disease development. Potential differential associations for men and women warrant further investigation.
People with schizophrenia have significantly raised mortality but we do
not know how these mortality patterns in the UK have changed since the
To measure the 25-year mortality of people with schizophrenia with
particular focus on changes over time.
Prospective record linkage study of the mortality of a community cohort
of 370 people with schizophrenia.
The cohort had an all-cause standardised mortality ratio of 289 (95% CI
247–337). Most deaths were from the common causes seen in the general
population. Unnatural deaths were concentrated in the first 5 years of
follow-up. There was an indication that cardiovascular mortality may have
increased relative to the general population (P = 0.053)
over the course of the study.
People with schizophrenia have a mortality risk that is two to three
times that of the general population. Most of the extra deaths are from
natural causes. The apparent increase in cardiovascular mortality
relative to the general population should be of concern to anyone with an
interest in mental health.
Policymakers seeking to design efficient and smoothly functioning pension systems for their aging workforces are beginning to acknowledge the key importance of administrative expenses when formulating rules for pension plan structure and fee disclosure requirements. This study explores the links between retirement plan offerings and pension expenses for a wide range of private and public sector pension plan types, using an invaluable new data set on two thousand Australian pension funds. Our analysis indicates how pension plan design can strongly influence plan expenses and consequently eventual retirement security.