It is a matter of common knowledge that at the beginning of the Christian church the Christians were persecuted by the Jews. Later the Jews were persecuted by the Christians. Throughout the Middle Ages the hatred between the two increased. Finally the Jews were banished from England, Spain, France, and other states of Europe until they were allowed to dwell only in parts of Italy, Germany, and Poland. When the Reformation began, the Protestants were faced by many problems in their attempts to organize a purified church. One of these problems was whether Jews should be allowed to live among Christians. The first of the leading Reformers to deal systematically with this problem was Martin Bucer of Strasbourg.