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Increasing recognition of paediatric inflammatory multi-system syndrome is a cause of concern. This study aimed to evaluate children with paediatric inflammatory multi-system syndrome and compare the clinical and laboratory features of children with and without cardiac involvement.
Material and methods:
We conducted a prospective single-centre study including 57 (male 37, 65%) patients with paediatric inflammatory multi-system syndrome at a tertiary care hospital between November, 2020 and March, 2021. The mean age was 8.8 ± 4.5 years (range, 10 months–16.7 years).
The most frequent symptoms were fever (100%), abdominal pain (65%) and diarrhoea (42%). SARS-CoV-2 PCR and serology tests were positive in 3 (5%) and 52 (91%) patients, respectively. Eight patients required intensive care support. Nineteen patients (33%) had cardiac involvement (valvular regurgitation in 15, left ventricular systolic dysfunction in 11 and coronary artery dilation in 1). The presence and duration of cough and intensive care admissions were significantly higher in children with cardiac involvement than those without it. The cut-off values of troponin T, pro-brain natriuretic peptide and interleukin 6 for predicting cardiac involvement were 11.65 ng/L (95% confidence interval, 0.63–0.90; sensitivity, 0.63; specificity, 0.84; area under the curve: 0.775, p = 0.009), 849.5 pg/mL (95% CI, 0.54–0.86; sensitivity, 0.63; specificity, 0.63; area under the curve: 0.706, p = 0.009) and 39.8 pg/mL (95% CI, 0.54–0.85; sensitivity, 0.63; specificity, 0.60; area under the curve: 0.698, p = 0.023), respectively.
Cardiac involvement in children with paediatric inflammatory multi-system syndrome is common. The risk of cardiac involvement can be predicted by troponin T, pro-brain natriuretic peptide and interleukin 6 levels.
Growth differentiation factor-15 is a novel biomarker of increasing importance in cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between ventricular measurements assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and serum growth differentiation factor-15 levels in children with surgically corrected tetralogy of Fallot.
Materials and method:
Serum growth differentiation factor-15 levels were measured in 40 patients (mean age: 15.2 ± 2.9 years; 52.5% male; 87.5% NYHA I). End-diastolic volume index, end-systolic volume index, and ejection fractions of both ventricles and pulmonary regurgitation fraction were measured on cardiac MRI. The correlation between growth differentiation factor-15 levels and cardiac MRI parameters of the patients was investigated. Also, growth differentiation factor-15 levels of the patients were compared with healthy controls since reference values have not been determined in children.
The mean growth differentiation factor-15 level was 254.9 ± 6.3 pg/ml in the patient group. There was no correlation between growth differentiation factor-15 levels and cardiac MRI parameters in patients. Also, there was no significant difference in growth differentiation factor-15 levels between the patients and control groups.
The serum levels of growth differentiation factor-15 were uncorrelated with ventricular size, function, and pulmonary regurgitation fraction assessed by cardiac MRI in children with operated tetralogy of Fallot. Moreover, growth differentiation factor-15 levels were not different in these patients from healthy children.
We aimed, in this study, to compare dispersion of the p wave in patients with type 1 diabetes to nondiabetic control subjects, and to investigate the relationship between the dispersion of the p wave and cardiac autonomic dysfunction in diabetic children.
We enrolled 49 patients with type 1 diabetes, and 32 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects, measuring the Valsalva ratio, resting heart rate, and orthostatic hypotension in all. The duration of the p wave was measured manually on a high-resolution computer screen. Dispersion, defined as the difference between maximum and minimum durations of the p waves, was also measured in the 12-lead electrocardiogram before and after the Valsalva maneuver.
The mean age of the patients and their controls were 14.2 ± 4.8 years, and 12.7 ± 4.5 years, respectively. The mean duration of diabetes had been 6.2 ± 4.6 years. Maximal and minimal values for the duration of the p wave were significantly decreased in the diabetic children, with the dispersion itself significantly increased. Values for the dispersion in the diabetic subjects were similar before and after the Valsalva maneuver, whereas dispersion was found significantly increased after this maneuver in the controls. The differences in the Valsalva ratio, resting heart rate, and orthostatic hypotension between the groups, on the other hand, were not found to be statistically significant.
The noted increase in the dispersion of the p wave in diabetic children reveals the onset of cardiac electrophysiological heterogeneity before it is possible to detect parasympathetic and sympathetic dysfunction with other tests.
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