Please note, due to essential maintenance online transactions will not be possible between 02:30 and 04:00 BST, on Tuesday 17th September 2019 (22:30-00:00 EDT, 17 Sep, 2019). We apologise for any inconvenience.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This study examines the impacts of two types of advertising content—healthy eating and anti-obesity advertising—on the demand for healthy and unhealthy food and beverage items. We show that differentiating consumers by weight is crucial in fully understanding the effects of advertising content on food and beverage demand. We find that among overweight individuals, anti-obesity advertisements are more effective than healthy eating advertisements at reducing the demand for unhealthy items and increasing the demand for healthy items. Furthermore, the magnitude of this effect increases with BMI. We discuss possible explanations and policy implications based on our results.
The current study examines the impact of a nutrition rating system on consumers’ food purchases in supermarkets.
Aggregate sales data for 102 categories of food (over 60 000 brands) on a weekly basis for 2005–2007 from a supermarket chain of over 150 stores are analysed. Change in weekly sales of nutritious and less nutritious foods, after the introduction of a nutrition rating system on store shelves, is calculated, controlling for seasonality and time trends in sales.
One hundred and sixty-eight supermarket stores in the north-east USA, from January 2005 to December 2007.
Consumers purchasing goods at the supermarket chain during the study period.
After the introduction of the nutrition ratings, overall weekly food sales declined by an average of 3637 units per category (95 % CI –5961, –1313; P<0·01). Sales of less nutritious foods fell by 8·31 % (95 % CI –13·50, –2·80 %; P=0·004), while sales of nutritious foods did not change significantly (P=0·21); as a result, the percentage of food purchases rated as nutritious rose by 1·39 % (95 % CI 0·58, 2·20 %; P<0·01). The decrease in sales of less nutritious foods was greatest in the categories of canned meat and fish, soda pop, bakery and canned vegetables.
The introduction of the nutrition ratings led shoppers to buy a more nutritious mix of products. Interestingly, it did so by reducing purchases of less nutritious foods rather than by increasing purchases of nutritious foods. In evaluating nutrition information systems, researchers should focus on the entire market basket, not just sales of nutritious foods.
Farm-to-hospital (FTH) programs can potentially improve the economy of local communities and preserve the environment. Research on adoption of farm-to-hospital (FTH) programs is extremely limited in the agricultural and applied economics literature. Using data from our 2012 regional FTH program survey of hospital food-service directors in the Northeastern United States and from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, this study estimates a logit model to determine factors that influence a hospital's decision to adopt an FTH program. The empirical results indicate that specific hospital characteristics and agricultural factors significantly influence a hospital's decision to adopt.
In understanding decreases in demand after exposure to media-induced food scares, aggregate data are almost exclusively presented without taking into consideration potential confounding variables. However, a better approach may be to use an experimental design coupled with targeting homogeneous willingness-to-pay (WTP) subgroups based on similarities in behavioral, psychological, and demographic characteristics of those who are most vulnerable to food scare information. This is accomplished through experimental economics and an analysis strategy called a classification and regression tree (CART). A stigma framework—which guides conceptual understanding of effects of media-induced food scares—suggests controlling contextual variables to better approximate ceteris paribus. To this end, we conducted an experiment that exposed people to information about mad cow disease and then asked them to bid their willingness-to-pay for an actual hamburger. The CART found distinct homogeneous WTP subgroups of individuals that could be used by government and industry professionals to create interventions to reduce potential consumer concern and producer losses.
We utilize the outbreak surveillance data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to examine whether consumer demand is impacted by the outbreak of food-borne disease. An additional person sickened due to the ingestion of tainted cheese products at home is found to decrease per capita milk demand in New York State by 0.13 percent (or 0.07 pound), while milk-and ice cream-borne disease outbreaks, occurring at home or in public places, are found to have no impact on fluid milk demand. Our results imply the existence of word-of-mouth effects, which cannot be tested by the popular information/media index approach used to measure food-borne disease outbreaks. We also find that a 7 percent increase in generic advertising expenditures or a 10 percent increase in expenditures on non-advertising marketing activities can offset the negative influence of one ill person in cheese-borne disease outbreaks at home, while holding other demand factors constant.
We propose a regime-switching model that allows demand to respond asymmetrically to upward and downward advertising changes. With the introduction of a smooth transition function, the model features smooth rather than abrupt parameter changes between regimes. We apply the model to nonalcoholic beverage data in the United States for 1974 through 2005 to investigate asymmetric advertising response. Results indicate that a decrease in milk advertising had a more profound impact on milk demand than an increase did. An increase in milk advertising had no impact on milk demand, but a decrease could have an own-advertising elasticity up to 0.049.
As a first effort at modeling nonalcoholic beverage demand in a systemwide framework that includes bottled water, this article examines the impact of advertising on the demand for nonalcoholic beverages in the United States. We employed an AIDS (almost ideal demand system) model of five jointly estimated equations that included advertising expenditures as explanatory variables to evaluate annual U. S. consumption of nonalcoholic beverages for 1974 through 2005. Results suggest that advertising increases demand for fluid milk, soft drinks, and coffee and tea, but not for juice or bottled water. Advertising spillover effects occur in over 50 percent of the cases considered, and such effects can be substantial, particularly for advertising of soft drinks, and coffee and tea. We find that a large increase in the retail price of fluid milk, an increasing trend towards dining out, and positive spillover effects from soft-drink advertising made significant contributions to bottled water's success in recent years.
A fixed-effects panel data demand model for five New York State markets is estimated to determine the differential impacts of generic fluid milk advertising by media type. Empirical results indicate that among the four media outlets, television advertising has the largest impact on per capita demand, followed by radio, outdoor, and print. Based on the estimated media-specific elasticities, media reallocation of advertising expenditures suggests that milk sales could increase significantly. The results indicate that cooperative media plan strategies developed between the New York regional advertising program and the national advertising programs would achieve the greatest benefits.
Annual seasonal advertising expenditure allocations were estimated for the national generic advertising programs for fluid milk and cheese with the use of price and advertising elasticities of demand that varied over time. Significant variation in optimal allocations existed both across products and over time, emphasizing the importance of obtaining accurate seasonal forecasts that incorporate changes in market conditions to plan future spending allocations. In the absence of such information, allocating annual budgets equally across quarters still produced positive producer welfare gains on average relative to historical spending that were not statistically different from those realized under the optimal spending strategy.
A model of the domestic demand for eggs was estimated from quarterly data over the period 1987 through 1995, incorporating an index of consumer dietary cholesterol concerns and generic advertising efforts by the American Egg Board and the California Egg Commission. Empirical results indicated that most of the observed change in egg demand could be explained by dietary cholesterol concerns. Simulating the model in a constant elasticity supply framework demonstrated that advertising efforts over the past several years have resulted in net benefits to egg producers largely when considering inelastic supply responses. However, considering trade bias reduces these benefit-cost ratios substantially.
The impacts of generic dairy advertising on retail, wholesale, and farm dairy markets are estimated in this study at the national level. The results indicate that generic dairy advertising had a major impact on retail, wholesale, and farm markets for the dairy industry. The main conclusion of the study is that farmers are receiving a high return on their investment in generic dairy advertising, i.e., an average rate of return of $3.40 for every dollar invested over the period 1984–95. Moreover, the return on investment in advertising was higher in the most recent year, almost double the average for the previous 11 years.
This article examines whether the assumption of perfect competition in the U.S. dairy industry biases the findings of economic impacts of generic dairy advertising. An imperfect competition model based on an approach similar to that of Appelbaum is developed and used to evaluate generic milk advertising. The results are compared with a perfect competition model. The findings indicate positive price and quantity impacts due to generic advertising. The differences in magnitude of impacts between the two models are small, suggesting that the assumption of perfect competition for U.S. dairy models is plausible.
This paper investigates the impacts of alternative federal dairy policies on the U.S. dairy sector. In addition to the current dairy price support program, five alternatives are investigated: (1) immediate deregulation, (2) gradual deregulation, (3) target price-deficiency payment program without supply control, (4) target price-deficiency payment program with supply control, and (5) mandatory supply control. An econometric model of the national dairy industry is used to simulate quarterly equilibrium price and quantity values at the farm and wholesale levels for each policy over the period 1980–90. Consumers are better off under both immediate and gradual deregulation, as well as the target price-deficiency payment scenarios because prices are lower, enabling them to consume more dairy products. Farmers, as a group, are better off under the two target price-deficiency payment program and supply control scenarios, where milk prices and producer surplus are highest.
An imperfect competition model of the U.S. milk market is developed for analyzing the impacts of dairy policy deregulation. Estimated degree-of-competition parameters indicate that the U.S. milk market has become more competitive over time. The usefulness of the model is demonstrated by showing the relative differences of dynamic simulation results of the imperfect competition model with the results of a conventional exogenous fluid differential model.
The potential economic impacts of the introduction of bovine somatotropin (bST) on U.S. milk supply and demand are analyzed using a national model of Class I and Class II milk markets. The results indicate that the introduction of bST will lead to lower milk prices, higher milk production, and larger government purchases of dairy products. Unlike previous economic analyses of bST, this analysis considers both supply and demand effects of bST. The implication is that studies that ignore potential demand-side effects may produce misleading results.
This article investigates the possible negative effects of bovine somatotropin (bST) and antibiotic use in cows on fluid-milk consumption in New York State. Based on data from a consumer survey, the potential change in milk consumption due to bST and antibiotic use is estimated. In addition, the current perceptions of consumers about bST and antibiotics are measured, and the significant socioeconomic, demographic, and attitudinal characteristics of consumers that are related to their milk-consumption response to bST are identified.
Without a doubt, climate change will be one of the most important environmental topics of the 1990s and will be high on the research agendas of many scientific disciplines in years ahead. While not yet universally accepted, it is now widely believed that anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and other “greenhouse” gases have the potential to substantially warm climates worldwide. Although there is no consensus on the timing and magnitude of global warming, current climate models predict an average increase of 2.8°C to 5.2°C in the earth's temperature over the next century (Karl, Diaz, and Barnett). Changes in regional temperature and precipitation will likely accompany the global warming, but there is even less scientific agreement on the magnitude of these changes.