Samples of 29 distinct larval forms of anurans were collected in streams flowing through primary rain forest at Nanga Tekalit, Sarawak, at three periods spaced over 22 years. This assemblage of tadpoles lives in torrents, riffles, shingle areas, open pools, leaf drifts, protected side pools, potholes in rocky banks, bank seepages, and pools of small intermittent streams. Positive associations of species in types of microhabitats and co-occurrence within sites lead to recognition of four taxonomically heterogeneous groups: one concentrated in leaf drifts; one using riffles, shingle areas, and open pools; one concentrated in potholes; and one using side pools and potholes. Most pairs of larval forms having strong negative association are characterized by differences in morphology and feeding behaviour; they show little evidence of competitive relations. Between-sites variation in species composition differs among the types of microhabitats, leaf drifts showing the least amount of variation. Species composition within a site shows less change over intervals of 1–5 days than over intervals of 13–18 days. Variation in species composition is greater between sites than within sites over intervals of 9–31 days. Organization in this community seems to be effected by three factors: reproductive behaviour of adults and morphological and behavioural adaptations of tadpoles.