To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Geomicrobiological investigations benefit from knowledge of geochemical and biological systems at different scales, including information about both the abiotic and the biotic components. Gathering this information requires analysis and characterization of both abiotic and biotic components of the target system. The techniques presented in this chapter were selected to cover a variety of needs in geomicrobiological studies, including general sample collection and storage, organic and inorganic compound quantification, and best practices for cultivation, observation, and analysis of microorganisms and microbial communities. In this chapter, introductions and discussions for common techniques provide the reader with a basic understanding of the technique itself, which samples can be analyzed using the technique, and how to prepare samples for analysis. Detailed methods are provided for select techniques, and citations to standard methods are provided for techniques whenever available. For techniques that are rapidly evolving, recent developments and applications are discussed.
Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a suite of related imaging methods, in which variations in the interaction force between a probe and a sample surface are used to generate image contrast. These instruments are incredibly sensitive; they can measure forces on the order of those required to break physical and chemical bonds, and under the most optimal conditions, atomic-scale resolution can be achieved. Although SPM is still primarily used for imaging, it is increasingly being used to measure nanoscale properties and interaction forces. This chapter serves as an introduction to the fundamentals of SPM and to the most prevalent methods needed for the investigation of mineral–microbe interactions.
X-ray diffraction techniques provide information regarding the formation and alteration of mineral phases that is critical for assessing geomicrobial processes. Of particular interest is the use of powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD) to identify unknown solid-state materials, determine the particle size of nanoscale mineral phases, and refine structure characteristics, such as unit cell parameters and atomic positions. The goal of this chapter is to provide practical knowledge for the successful preparation of solid mineral samples, optimal data collection strategies, and analysis of diffractograms collected from pXRD experiments. Specific uses of pXRD techniques in geomicrobiology are discussed to demonstrate the importance of diffraction in advancing our understanding of microbial communities in geologic systems.
Isothermal titration calorimetry combined with surface complexation modeling is an ideal technique to provide further characterization of microbial surface reactivity towards protons and metal ions. This technique can produce enthalpies of protonation and metal ion coordination of acidic functional groups on microbial surfaces. This information is critical for understanding the thermodynamic driving force of surface complexation and provides key information for the indirect identification of surface ligands. Topics covered in this chapter include how this technique complements traditional methods of microbial surface reactivity, necessary system characterization prior to performing calorimetric experiments, how to prepare biomass and solutions for calorimetric titrations, difficult aspects of this technique, and data analysis and interpretation.
Lipid biomarker analysis is a useful tool for characterizing microbial communities in geomicrobiology. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) are major components of microbial membranes, and analysis of these markers provides insight into microbial biomass, community structure, and metabolic processes. This article reviews the methods for extraction, fractionation, derivatization, and quantification of PLFA, as well as the interpretation of PLFA patterns for microbial community analysis in natural environmental systems. The discussion centers on the development, the subsequent modifications, and the advantages and limitations of the methods. Two case studies are given to illustrate the applications of intact phospholipid profiling (IPP) and PLFA in geomicrobiology. The recent developments and future directions of microbial signature lipid analysis are also discussed.
Geomicrobiology is the study of microbes and microbial processes and their role in driving environmental and geological processes at scales ranging from the nano, micron, to meter scale. This growing field has seen major advances in recent years, largely due to the development of new analytical tools and improvements to existing techniques, which allow us to better understand the complex interactions between microbes and their surroundings. In this comprehensive handbook, expert authors outline the state-of-the-art and emerging analytical techniques used in geomicrobiology. Readers are guided through each technique including background theory, sample preparation, standard methodology, data collection and analysis, best practices and common pitfalls, and examples of how and where the technique has been applied. The book provides a practical go-to reference for advanced students, researchers and professional scientists looking to employ techniques commonly used in geomicrobiology.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.