To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The climate of Europe has changed in the past century. An increase in mean annual air temperature of +0.90°C could be observed between 1901 and 2005 (Jones & Moberg 2003). For the period 1977–2000, trends are even higher for Europe's mountain regions (Böhm et al. 2001). Beniston (2005) showed that for the alpine region minimum temperatures have increased up to 2 °C during the twentieth century, whereas the snow cover period has been reduced (IPCC 2007). The alpine and nival (uppermost altitudinal zone of the Alps above the closed alpine grassland) zones (e.g., Grabherr 1997) of high mountain ecosystems are considered to be particularly sensitive to warming (Diaz & Bradley 1997; Haeberli & Beniston 1998) as these ecosystems are determined by low temperature conditions. This life zone offers ideal conditions to study climate change effects because (1) direct human impact is very low, (2) its ecological systems are comparatively simple, at least in the upper elevation levels, and (3) its systems are dominated by abiotic, climate-related ecological factors. The importance of biotic factors such as competition decreases with altitude (Körner 1994; Callaway et al. 2002). Since high mountain plants have proven to respond sensitively to climate change (Grabherr et al. 1994, 2001), great efforts were made to establish the large-scale monitoring network GLORIA (Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine environments) (Pauli et al. 2003).
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.