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Radiation exposure during paediatric cardiac catheterisation procedures should be minimised to “as low as reasonably achievable”. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a modified radiation safety protocol in reducing patient dose during paediatric interventional cardiac catheterisation.
Radiation dose data were retrospectively extracted from January 2014 to December 2015 (Standard group) and prospectively collected from January 2016 to December 2017 (Low-dose group) after implementation of a modified radiation safety protocol. Both groups included five most common procedures: atrial septal defect closure, patent ductus arteriosus closure, perimembranous ventricular septal defect closure, pulmonary valvuloplasty, and supraventricular tachycardia ablation.
Median air Kerma was 48.4, 50.5, 29.75, 149, 218, and 12.9 mGy for atrial septal defect closure, pulmonary valvuloplasty, patent ductus arteriosus closure <20 kg, ventricular septal defect closure <20 kg, ventricular septal defect closure ≧20 kg, and supraventricular tachycardia ablation in Standard group, respectively, which significantly decreased to 18.75, 20.7, 11.5, 41.9, 117, and 3.3 mGy in Low-dose group (p < 0.05). This represents a reduction in dose to each patient between 46 and 74%. Among five procedural types in Low-dose group, dose of ventricular septal defect closure was the highest with median air Kerma of 62.5 mGy, dose area product of 364.7 μGy.m2, and dose area product per body weight of 21.5 μGy.m2/kg, respectively, along with the longest fluoroscopy time of 9.9 minutes.
We provided a feasible radiation safety protocol with specific settings on a case-by-case basis. Increasing awareness and adequate training of a practical radiation dose reduction program are essential to improve radiation protection for children.
The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is under construction on Maui, HI. With its unprecedented resolution and photon collecting power ATST will be an ideal tool for studying prominences and filaments and their role in producing Coronal Mass Ejections that drive Space Weather. The ATST facility will provide a set of first light instruments that enable imaging and spectroscopy of the dynamic filament and prominence structure at 8 times the resolution of Hinode. Polarimeters allow high precision chromospheric and coronal magnetometry at visible and infrared (IR) wavelengths. This paper summarizes the capabilities of the ATST first-light instrumentation with focus on prominence and filament science.
Real 3-D coronal magnetic field reconstruction is expected to be made based on the technologies of IR spectrometry and tomography, in which the data from other wavelengths can be used as critical reference. Our recent studies focused on this issue are briefly reviewed in this paper. Liu & Lin (2008) first evaluated the validity of potential field source surface model applied to one of five limb regions in the corona by comparing the theoretical polarization maps with SOLARC observations in the IR Fe XIII 10747 Å forbidden coronal emission line (CEL). The five limb coronal regions were then studied together in order to study the spatial relation between the bright EUV features on the solar disk and the inferred IR emission sources, which were obtained from the inversion of the SOLARC linear polarization (LP) measurements (Liu 2009). The inversion for each fiber data in the field of view was made by finding the best location where the difference between the synthesized and the observed polarizations reaches the minimum in the integration path along the line of sight. We found a close relationship between the inferred IR emission source locations and the EUV strong emission positions.
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