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Employing atomic-scale simulations, the response of a high-angle grain boundary (GB), the soft/hard GB, against external loading was systematically investigated. Under tensile loading close to the hard orientation, strain-induced dynamic recrystallization was observed to initiate through direct soft-to-hard grain reorientation, which was triggered by stress mismatch, inhibited by surface tension from the soft-hard GB, and proceeded by interface ledges. Such grain reorientation corresponds with expansion and contraction of the hard grain along and perpendicular to the loading direction, respectively, accompanied by local atomic shuffling, providing relatively large normal strain of 8.3% with activation energy of 0.04 eV per atom. Tensile strain and residual dislocations on the hard/soft GB facilitate the initiation of dynamic recrystallization by lowering the energy barrier and the critical stress for grain reorientation, respectively.
Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) enables the desorption of nonvolatile and/or thermally labile neutral compounds, such as asphaltenes, saturated hydrocarbons in base-oil fractions and biomolecules, from a metal surface into a mass spectrometer. This is a “gentle” evaporation technique and causes minimal fragmentation to the desorbed neutral molecules, including oligonucleotides and polypeptides. LIAD can be coupled with a wide range of ionization methods to facilitate analysis of the desorbed analytes by using many different types of mass spectrometers, including Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, linear quadrupole ion trap and quadrupole time-of-flight instruments. The development and improvement of LIAD remains an active research area with diverse goals such as better desorption efficiencies, minimized analyte fragmentation and greater versatility. This article details the theory, experimental methods, applications, and future directions of LIAD in combination with mass spectrometry.
Imprinted genes uniquely drive and support fetoplacental growth by controlling the allocation of maternal resources to the fetus and affecting the newborn’s growth. We previously showed that alterations of the placental imprinted gene expression are associated with suboptimal perinatal growth and respond to environmental stimuli including socio-economic determinants. At the same time, maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy (MPSP) has been shown to affect fetal growth. Here, we set out to test the hypothesis that placental imprinted gene expression mediates the effects of MPSP on fetal growth in a well-characterized birth cohort, the Stress in Pregnancy (SIP) Study. We observed that mothers experiencing high MPSP deliver infants with lower birthweight (P=0.047). Among the 109 imprinted genes tested, we detected panels of placental imprinted gene expression of 23 imprinted genes associated with MPSP and 26 with birthweight. Among these genes, five imprinted genes (CPXM2, glucosidase alpha acid (GAA), GPR1, SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 2 (SHANK2) and THSD7A) were common to the two panels. In multivariate analyses, controlling for maternal age and education and gestational age at birth and infant gender, two genes, GAA and SHANK2, each showed a 22% mediation of MPSP on fetal growth. These data provide new insights into the role that imprinted genes play in translating the maternal stress message into a fetoplacental growth pattern.
There is little investigation on the interaction effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and social support on non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in community adolescent populations, or gender differences in these effects.
To examine the individual and interaction effects of ACEs and social support on NSSI, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in adolescents, and explore gender differences.
A school-based health survey was conducted in three provinces in China between 2013–2014. A total of 14 820 students aged 10–20 years completed standard questionnaires, to record details of ACEs, social support, NSSI, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt.
Of included participants, 89.4% reported one or more category of ACEs. The 12-month prevalence of NSSI, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt was 26.1%, 17.5% and 4.4%, respectively; all were significantly associated with increased ACEs and lower social support. The multiple adjusted odds ratio of NSSI in low versus high social support was 2.27 (95% CI 1.85–2.67) for girls and 1.81 (95% CI 1.53–2.14) for boys, and their ratio (Ratio of two odds ratios, ROR) was 1.25 (P = 0.037). Girls with high ACEs scores (5–6) and moderate or low social support also had a higher risk of suicide attempt than boys (RORs: 2.34, 1.84 and 2.02, respectively; all P < 0.05).
ACEs and low social support are associated with increased risk of NSSI and suicidality in Chinese adolescents. Strategies to improve social support, particularly among female adolescents with a high number of ACEs, should be an integral component of targeted mental health interventions.
Kevlar (polyparaphenylene terephthalamide) and PBDT (poly(2,2′-disulfonyl-4,4′-benzidine terephthalamide))-derivatives have very similar chemical structures with aromatic rings. In this study, thermal conductivities of their single chains were calculated using molecular dynamics simulations. Chain rotation was found to be the key to reducing the thermal conductivity. By introducing a new chain rotation factor (CRF), we can easily quantify chain rotation level of single-chain polymers. We demonstrated that thermal conductivity decreases as the CRF increases. We performed further calculations on phonon properties and unveiled that the small thermal conductivity led by large chain rotation can be attributed to reduced phonon group velocities and shortened phonon mean free paths. Insights obtained in this study can be used for tuning thermal conductivity of various polymers and facilitating their various applications including thermal energy conversion and management.
Given the global water challenges, solar-driven steam generation has become a renewed topic recently as an energy-efficient way for clean water production. Here, a hybrid plasmonic structure consisting of a top layer of TiN nanoparticles (NPs) and a bottom layer of mesoporous anodized alumina membrane (AAM) was rationally designed and fabricated. The top TiN NPs with broadband light absorption acted as a plasmonic heating layer, which converted the absorbed light to heat efficiently for interfacial water heating. The AAM acted as the mechanical support layer, guaranteeing the heat isolation and continuous water replenishment. With optimized thickness of the TiN top layer, a solar steam generation efficiency of 87.7% was achieved in this study. This efficiency is comparable or even higher than prior studies. The current work proves the capability of the TiN NPs as an alternative photothermal material.
Coherent cuboidal B2 nanoprecipitation in body-centered cubic (BCC)-based high-entropy alloys (HEAs) is important for the improvement of mechanical strength. The present work primarily investigated the effect of Ti substitution for Al on the cuboidal B2 nanoprecipitates in BCC Al0.7NiCoFeCr2 HEAs. A series of (Al,Ti)0.7NiCoFeCr2 HEAs with different Al/Ti ratios were prepared by suction-cast processing, and their microstructures and mechanical properties were then characterized comprehensively. It was found that the substitution of Ti for Al can change the phase structures of ordered precipitation, from the B2-AlNi to a highly ordered L21-Ni2AlTi phase. Especially, a small amount addition of Ti (≤4.2 at.%, Al/Ti ratio ≥2/1) renders the HEAs with cuboidal L21 nanoparticles coherently precipitated into the BCC matrix, which is attributed to the moderate lattice misfit (ε = 0.5–0.6%) between BCC and L21 phases. HEAs with such coherent microstructures exhibit high compressive yield strength of about 1700–1800 MPa. When the Ti content reaches up to 6.25 at.%, the matrix of the alloy will be turned into the σ phase, rather than BCC, leading to a heavy brittleness.
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC), such as MoS2, WS2 have attracted attention due to their mechanical and electronic properties in their two dimensional (2D) structures. Here, we report a facile growth of monolayer TMDC using oxide source materials with the assistant of NaCl. The addition of NaCl can enhance the lateral growth and widen the growth window of TMDC. Through carefully controlling the growth parameters, large area growth of TMDC can be achieved. Two steps E-beam lithography was utilized to fabricate electrodes of TMDC. The phototransistors made from the CVD grown TMDC show strong persistent photoconductivity (PPC). It was finally shown that TMDC device capping with h-BN could have suppressed PPC effects.
In this paper, we introduce a lower extremity exoskeleton CUHK-EXO that is developed to help paraplegic patients, who have lost the motor and sensory functions of their lower limbs to perform basic daily life motions. Since the sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit (STS) motion is the first step for paraplegic patients toward walking, analysis of the exoskeleton's applicability to the STS motion assistance is performed. First, the human-exoskeleton system (HES) is modeled as a five-link model during the STS motion, and the center of pressure (COP) on the ground and center of gravity of the whole system are calculated. Then, a description of the CUHK-EXO hardware design is presented, including the mechatronics design and actuator selection. The COP position is an important factor indicating system balance and wearer's comfort. Based on the COP position, a trajectory online modification algorithm (TOMA) is proposed for CUHK-EXO to counteract disturbances, stabilize system balance, and improve the wearer's comfort in the STS motion. The results of STS motion tests conducted with a paraplegic patient demonstrate that CUHK-EXO can provide a normal reference pattern and proper assistive torque to support the patient's STS motion. In addition, a pilot study is conducted with a healthy subject to verify the effectiveness of the proposed TOMA under external disturbances before future clinical trials. The testing results verify that CUHK-EXO can counteract disturbances, and help the wearer perform the STS motion safely and comfortably.
We report on a target system supporting automated positioning of nano-targets with a precision resolution of
in three dimensions. It relies on a confocal distance sensor and a microscope. The system has been commissioned to position nanometer targets with 1 Hz repetition rate. Integrating our prototype into the table-top ATLAS 300 TW-laser system at the Laboratory for Extreme Photonics in Garching, we demonstrate the operation of a 0.5 Hz laser-driven proton source with a shot-to-shot variation of the maximum energy about 27% for a level of confidence of 0.95. The reason of laser shooting experiments operated at 0.5 Hz rather than 1 Hz is because the synchronization between the nano-foil target positioning system and the laser trigger needs to improve.
Nanosecond pulse discharges can provide high reduced electric field for exciting high-energy electrons, and the ultrafast rising time of the applied pulse can effectively suppress the generation of spark streamer and produce homogeneous discharges preionized by runaway electrons in atmospheric-pressure air. In this paper, the electrostatic field in a tube-plate electrodes gap is calculated using a calculation software. Furthermore, a simple physical model of nanosecond pulse discharges is established to investigate the behavior of the runaway electrons during the nanosecond pulse discharges with a rise time of 1.6 ns and a full-width at half-maximum of 3–5 ns in air. The physical model is coded by a numerical software, and then the runaway electrons and electron avalanche are investigated under different conditions. The simulated results show that the applied voltage, voltage polarity, and gas pressure can significantly affect the formation of the avalanche and the behavior of the runaway electrons. The inception time of runaway breakdown decreases when the applied voltage increases. In addition, the threshold voltage of runaway breakdown has a minimum value (10 kPa) with the variation of gas pressure.
A compact dual-frequency antenna with enhanced bandwidth is proposed in this paper. Dual-frequency operation is realized by cutting a slot in the elliptical patch, and bandwidth enhancement is achieved by using a partial ground plane. Compared with the conventional half-wave antenna, the antenna has a compact size of 24 × 20 mm2, which equals to 0.38 λ1 × 0.31 λ1 (λ1, the guided wavelength at the first resonant frequency). The dual-frequency antenna with a partial rectangle ground and a partial arc-shaped ground is investigated for impedance matching. Simulated results indicate that the antenna with a partial arc-shaped ground can obtain a larger bandwidth for two bands than that with a partial rectangle ground. Experimental results show that the antenna with a partial arc-shaped ground can operate in 2.4 and 5 GHz bands, which covers the 2.4, 5.2 and 5.8 GHz for wireless local area network. The impedance bandwidths of two bands are 9.5 and 13.6%, respectively. Also, good radiation performances have been achieved at two bands.
The association of 24 h urinary Na and potassium excretion with the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been studied in China. The aim of the present study was to examine this association by analysing the data from 1906 study participants living in north China. To this end, 24 h urine samples were collected. Of the 1906 participants, 471 (24·7 %) had the MetS. The mean urinary Na and K excretion was 228·7 and 40·8 mmol/d, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, the odds of the MetS significantly increased across the increasing tertiles of urinary Na excretion (1·00, 1·40 and 1·54, respectively). For the components of the MetS, the odds of central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG, but not the odds of low HDL-cholesterol and elevated fasting glucose, significantly increased with the successive tertiles of urinary Na excretion. Furthermore, for every 100 mmol/d increase in urinary Na excretion, the odds of the MetS, central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG was significantly increased by 29, 63, 22 and 21 %, respectively. However, urinary K excretion was not significantly associated with the risk of the MetS. These findings suggest that high Na intake might be an important risk factor for the MetS in Chinese adults.
IL-27, a member of the IL-12 family, has been involved in maternal tolerance to the foetus and successful pregnancy. Growing evidences indicate that IL-27 plays a crucial role in pregnancy.
We carried out the present study in order to investigate whether polymorphisms in the IL27 are associated with the risk for CHDs, including atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect.
Patients and methods
We conducted this case–control study among 247 atrial septal defect patients, 150 ventricular septal defect patients, and 368 healthy controls in a Chinese population using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay.
Significantly increased risk for atrial septal defect (p=0.001, OR=1.490, 95% CI=1.178–1.887) and ventricular septal defect (p=0.004, OR=1.502, 95% CI=1.139–1.976) was observed to be associated with the allele G of rs153109. In a dominant model, we have also observed that increased susceptibilities for atrial septal defect (p<0.01, OR=1.89, 95% CI=1.35–2.63) and ventricular septal defect (p<0.01, OR=2.50, 95% CI=1.67–3.85) were statistically associated with rs153109; however, no association was found between CHD risk and rs17855750 in the IL27 gene.
The 153109 of the IL27 gene may be associated with the susceptibility to CHD, including atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect.
Nearly dense and almost single-phase bulk (Cr1–xVx)2AlC (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0) ceramics were successfully fabricated by in situ hot-pressing method using Cr, V, Al, and C powders as raw materials. A possible synthesis mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of (Cr1–xVx)2AlC solid solutions. The lattice parameters, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the (Cr1–xVx)2AlC ceramics were investigated in detail. The results indicated that the lattice parameters increased with the substitution of Cr by V and the aspect ratio of the grain changed from 1.4 to 3.2. The dependence of the mechanical properties on the V content was a single-peak type. The (Cr0.5V0.5)2AlC ceramic possessed the optimal mechanical performance and its Vickers hardness, flexural strength, and fracture toughness reached the maximum values of 5.18 GPa, 402 MPa, 5.91 MPa m1/2, respectively, due to the solid solution effect. The energy-consuming mechanisms of the material were also discussed.
A minimum feedback arc set of a directed graph G is a smallest set of arcs whose removal makes G acyclic. Its cardinality is denoted by β(G). We show that a simple Eulerian digraph with n vertices and m arcs has β(G) ≥ m2/2n2+m/2n, and this bound is optimal for infinitely many m, n. Using this result we prove that a simple Eulerian digraph contains a cycle of length at most 6n2/m, and has an Eulerian subgraph with minimum degree at least m2/24n3. Both estimates are tight up to a constant factor. Finally, motivated by a conjecture of Bollobás and Scott, we also show how to find long cycles in Eulerian digraphs.
Numerous calc-alkaline granitoid intrusions in the eastern Kunlun Orogen provide a valuable opportunity to constrain the evolution of the orogen. The age and genesis of these intrusions, however, remain poorly understood. The granitoid intrusions near the Balong region, eastern Kunlun Orogen, consist of granodiorite, diorite and syenogranite. The granodiorite contains crystallized segregations, abundant mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) and small quartz diorite stocks. In situ zircon U–Pb dating reveals that the granodiorites and quartz diorites were emplaced between 263 and 241 Ma, whereas the syenogranite was produced at c. 231 Ma. The granodiorite and quartz diorite have a calc-alkaline affinity and are metaluminous and Na-rich, with slightly enriched Sr–Nd isotope compositions. The granodiorite is characterized by fractionated REE patterns, whereas the quartz diorite displays a relatively flat REE pattern. The MMEs are consistent with the granodiorite in terms of incompatible elements and Sr–Nd isotope composition. Compared to the granodiorite and diorite, the syenogranite has higher SiO2, K, Rb, Th and Sr contents and a lower Rb/Sr ratio. The results presented here, when combined with regional geological data, indicate that the granodiorite and quartz diorite were derived from dehydration melting of mafic lower crustal rocks during the N-directed subduction of the Anyemaqen ocean lithosphere in Late Permian–Middle Triassic times, whereas the syenogranite was produced at a higher crustal level in a syn-collisional setting compared to the granodiorite.
Tetra(4-dihydroxyborylphenyl)germanium as the tetrahedral units and 1,2,4,5-tetrahydroxybenzene as linkers were selected to form a crystalline porous aromatic framework, CPAF-13, with the planar five-membered BO2C2 ring in its structure by a dehydration reaction. The crystallinity of CPAF-13 was confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis. The Ar sorption measurement on activated CPAF-13 results in a surface area of 417 m2/g, using Brunauer Emmett Teller model. CPAF-13 also shows a considerable adsorption capacity of H2.
Atomic force microscopy probe-induced large-area ultrathin SiOx (x ≡ O/Si content ratio and x > 2) protrusions only a few nanometers high on a SiO2 layer were characterized by scanning photoemission microscopy (SPEM) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). SPEM images of the large-area ultrathin SiOx protrusions directly showed the surface chemical distribution and chemical state specifications. The peak intensity ratios of the XPS spectra of the large-area ultrathin SiOx protrusions provided the elemental quantification of the Si 2p core levels and Si oxidation states (such as the Si4+, Si3+, Si2+, and Si1+ species). The O/Si content ratio (x) was evidently determined by the height of the large-area ultrathin SiOx protrusions.
Si3N4 ceramics are excellent metal cutting materials. The cutting behavior can be improved by hard particle dispersion phase hardening and heat treatment so as to reduce glass phase in the grain boundaries. Compared with cemented carbide tools, the cutting life of the composite Si3N4 cutting tool is about 10-100 times longer, and the optimum cutting speed is about 3-10 times faster. It performs well in cutting hardened tools, nickel based alloys, and other hard materials and can sustain shock loads in operations such as milling, planing and other types of interrupted cutting. Applications in various fields show that machining efficiency can be increased by 3-10 times resulting in savings of time, electricity, and machining of 30-70% or even more.