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As a wide-reaching institutional reform, China's fiscal decentralization was launched in the early 1980s to encourage provincial economic growth by granting more financial autonomy to provincial governments. In this paper, the impact of fiscal decentralization on China's environmental quality is investigated both theoretically and empirically. A neoclassical model is developed based on the primary characteristics of China's fiscal decentralization. Using provincial panel data for the period 1995-2015, a two-equation regression model is employed to empirically verify the three propositions of the theoretical model: (1) there exists an inverted-U shaped relationship between fiscal decentralization and GDP per capita; (2) fiscal decentralization is positively related to GDP per capita at the steady state; (3) there is an inverted-U shaped Environmental Kuznets Curve relationship between pollution emissions and economic growth.
Archaeological research on food-production systems has focused heavily on the origins of agriculture and animal domestication; the agricultural practices of early states are comparatively less well understood. This article explores archaeological evidence for crop cultivation, field-management practices and the use of farming implements at the Western Han (202 BC–AD 8) village of Sanyangzhuang in Henan Province, China. The authors analyse the implications of these practices for the newly developed smallholder mode of production. By combining diverse strands of evidence, this investigation provides new insights into the status of agricultural production in the Central Plains during the Western Han Dynasty.
Information systems (IS) have facilitated workflow in the health care system for years. However, the utilization of IS in disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs) has been less studied.
In Taiwan, we started a program in 2008 to build up an information system, MEDical Assistance and Information Dashboard (MED-AID), to improve the capability and increase the efficiency of our national DMAT.
Method: The mission of our national DMAT was to provide acute trauma care and subacute outpatient care in the field after an emergency event (e.g., earthquakes). We built the IS through a user-oriented process to fit the need of the DMAT. We first analyzed the response work in the DMAT missions and reviewed the current paperwork. We evaluated the eligibility and effectiveness of the core functions of DMATs by experts in Taiwan and then developed the IS. The IS was then tested and revised each year in two table-top exercises and one regional full-scale exercise by the DMAT staffs who came from different hospitals in Taiwan.
During the past 10 years, we identified several core concepts of IS of DMAT: patient tracking, medical record, continuity of care, integration of referral resources, disease surveillance, patient information reporting, and medical resources management. The application of the IS facilitate the DMAT in providing safe patient care with continuous recording and integrate patient referral resources based on geographic information. The IS also help the planning in real-time disease surveillance and logistic function in the medical resources monitoring.
Information systems could facilitate patient care and relieve the workload on information analysis and resources management for DMATs.
Consider a particular bidimensional risk model, in which two insurance companies divide between them in different proportions both the premium income and the aggregate claims. In practice, it can be interpreted as an insurer–reinsurer scenario, where the reinsurer takes over a proportion of the insurer's losses. Under the assumption that the claim sizes and inter-arrival times form a sequence of independent and identically distributed random pairs, with each pair obeying a dependence structure, an asymptotic expression for the ruin probability of this bidimensional risk model with constant interest rates is established.
In situ U–Pb and Hf analyses were used for crustal zircon xenocrysts from Triassic kimberlites exposed in the Rangnim Massif of North Korea to identify components of the basement hidden in the deep crust of the Rangnim Massif and to clarify the crustal evolution of the massif. The U–Pb age spectrum of the zircons has a prominent population at 1.9–1.8 Ga and a lack of Archaean ages. The data indicate that the deep crust and basement beneath the Rangnim Massif are predominantly of Palaeoproterozoic age, consistent with the ages of widely exposed Palaeoproterozoic granitic rocks. In situ zircon Hf isotope data show that most of the Palaeoproterozoic zircon xenocrysts have negative ϵHf(t) values (−9.7 to +0.7) with an average Hf model age of 2.86 ± 0.02 Ga (2σ), which suggests that the Palaeoproterozoic basement was not juvenile but derived from the reworking of Archaean rocks. Considering the existence of Archaean remanent material in the Rangnim Massif and their juvenile features, a strong crustal reworking event is indicated at 1.9–1.8 Ga, during which time the pre-existing Archaean basement was exhausted and replaced by a newly formed Palaeoproterozoic basement. These features suggest that the Rangnim Massif constitutes the eastern extension of the Palaeoproterozoic Liao–Ji Belt of the North China Craton instead of the Archaean Liaonan Block as previously thought. A huge Palaeoproterozoic orogen may exist in the eastern margin of the Sino-Korean Craton.
Tsangpoite, ideally Ca5(PO4)2(SiO4), the hexagonal polymorph of silicocarnotite, and matyhite, ideally Ca9(Ca0.5□0.5)Fe(PO4)7, the Fe-analogue of Ca-merrillite, were identified from the D'Orbigny angrite meteorite by electron probe microanalysis, electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. On the basis of electron diffraction, the symmetry of tsangpoite was shown to be hexagonal, P63/m or P63, with a = 9.489(4) Å, c = 6.991(6) Å, V = 545.1(6) Å3 and Z = 2 for 12 oxygen atoms per formula unit, and that of matyhite was shown to be trigonal, R3c, with a = 10.456 (7) Å, c = 37.408(34) Å, V = 3541.6 (4.8) Å3 and Z = 6 for 28 oxygen atoms per formula unit. On the basis of their constant association with the grain-boundary assemblage: Fe sulfide + ulvöspinel + Al–Ti-bearing hedenbergite + fayalite–kirschsteinite intergrowth, the formation of tsangpoite and matyhite, along with kuratite (the Fe-analogue of rhönite), can be readily rationalised as crystallisation from residue magmas at the final stage of the D'Orbigny meteorite formation. Alternatively, the close petrographic relations between tsangpoite/matyhite and the resorbed Fe sulfide rimmed by fayalite + kirschsteinite symplectite, such as the nucleation of tsangpoite in association with magnetite ± other phases within Fe sulfide and the common outward growth of needle-like tsangpoite or plate-like matyhite from the fayalite–kirschsteinite symplectic rim of Fe sulfide into hedenbergite, infer that these new minerals and the grain-boundary assemblage might represent metasomatic products resulting from reactions between an intruding metasomatic agent and the porous olivine–plagioclase plate + fayalite-kirschsteinite overgrowth + augite + Fe sulfide aggregates. Still further thermochemical and kinetics evidence is required to clarify the exact formation mechanisms/conditions of the euhedral tsangpoite, matyhite and kuratite at the grain boundary of the D'Orbigny angrite.
Sulphur isotopes can be used as a powerful tool to trace fluid evolution and explore the formation of chimneys. To clarify the in situ S isotopic variations of sulphides at the micro-scale, we analyzed a sulphide chimney collected from the hydrothermal field in the East Pacific Rise 1–2° S using a sensitive high-mass-resolution ion micro-probe for stable isotopes (SHRIMP SI). Three mineral zones can be identified in the chimney: an external outer wall of porous anhydrite and colloform pyrite, an internal middle zone of sub-euhedral pyrite and massive chalcopyrite, and an inner zone of massive pyrite. The δ34SV-CDT values of the sulphides fall within the range 1.83–7.51 ‰ (avg. 4.05 ‰, n = 16), and S isotopic values increase from the core (3.09 ‰, n = 3) to the middle (3.78 ‰, n = 11) to the edge (6.99 ‰, n = 2). These results illustrate mineral crystallization processes and the mixing between seawater-derived S and magmatic–hydrothermal fluids during the growth of the chimney. The zones from the edge to the core are characterized by crystal morphologies of colloform/anhedral pyrite to massive pyrite with decreasing δ34S values, revealing multi-stage mineral deposition and sulphur isotopic fractionation. In contrast to the increase in δ34S values from the core to the edge in one profile (profile A), anomalously low δ34S values in fine-grained pyrite relative to chalcopyrite in another profile (profile B) in the middle zone result from S isotopic exchange between seawater SO42− and fluid H2S due to different fluid–seawater mixing, possibly caused by variations in permeability and porosity across the chimney.
The ZnO/g-C3N4 binary heterostructures were formed by two steps, then the firm connection between ZnO NRs and lamellar g-C3N4 was characterized through powder XRD, FESEM with EDS, TEM, XPS, and Thermogravimetric analysis. Then the gas sensing performances of ZnO/g-C3N4 nanoheterostructures were analyzed systematically by using ethanol as a molecular probe. The results revealed that the fabricated compositive sensor not only exhibited quick response/recovery characteristics in the whole operating temperature (OT) range of 200–300 °C but also got a maximum response of 14.29 toward 100 ppm of ethanol at the optimal OT of only 260 °C. Moreover, such heterostructures also demonstrated good selectivity and superb reproducibility to acetone among all the tested toxic gases, especially higher response and faster response–recovery speeds than the pristine ZnO sensor. The above ZnO/g-C3N4 heterostructures may also supply other novel applications in the aspects of lithium-ion batteries, photocatalysis, optical devices, and so on.
This paper introduces two novel conformal structure-preserving algorithms for solving the coupled damped nonlinear Schrödinger (CDNLS) system, which are based on the conformal multi-symplectic Hamiltonian formulation and its conformal conservation laws. The proposed algorithms can preserve corresponding conformal multi-symplectic conservation law and conformal momentum conservation law in any local time-space region, respectively. Moreover, it is further shown that the algorithms admit the conformal charge conservation law, and exactly preserve the dissipation rate of charge under appropriate boundary conditions. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the conformal properties and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms during long-time numerical simulations and validate the analysis.
Disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a patient is controversial. There is significant stigma associated with a diagnosis of AD or dementia in China, but the attitude of the society toward disclosure of such a diagnosis had not been formally evaluated prior to our study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attitude toward disclosing an AD diagnosis to patients in China with cognitive impairment from their caregivers, and the factors that may affect their attitude.
We designed a 17-item questionnaire and administered this questionnaire to caregivers, who accompanied patients with cognitive impairment or dementia in three major hospitals in Shanghai, China. The caregiver's attitude toward disclosing the diagnosis of AD as evaluated by the questionnaire was compared to that of disclosing the diagnosis of terminal cancer.
A majority (95.7%) of the 175 interviewed participants (mean 14.2 years of education received) wished to know their own diagnosis if they were diagnosed with AD, and 97.6% preferred the doctor to tell their family members if they were diagnosed with AD. If a family member of the participants suffered from AD, 82.9% preferred to have the diagnosis disclosed to the patient. “Cognitive impairment” was the most accepted term by caregivers to disclose AD diagnosis in Chinese.
This study suggests most of the well-educated individuals in a Chinese urban area favored disclosing the diagnosis when they or their family members were diagnosed with AD.
The hydrobaric effect on photoactivity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) fabricated by cathodic deposition in an aqueous solution was evaluated in this study. When the applied pressure was increased to 35 MPa, the water-splitting performance was improved by almost fourfold of the performance of the TiO2 prepared at atmospheric pressure. The surface states effect was significant in the deposited TiO2, which was exploited to affect the charges recombination of TiO2, and thereby enhance the resultant photoelectrochemical water-splitting performance. The hydrobaric cathodic deposition could be extended to fabrication of other metal oxides to eliminate the negative influence from the high-temperature process.
The nonlinear Dirac equation is an important model in quantum physics with a set of conservation laws and a multi-symplectic formulation. In this paper, we propose energy-preserving and multi-symplectic wavelet algorithms for this model. Meanwhile, we evidently improve the efficiency of these algorithms in computations via splitting technique and explicit strategy. Numerical experiments are conducted during long-term simulations to show the excellent performances of the proposed algorithms and verify our theoretical analysis.
In traditional antenna design, metal components are not placed in the central part of the antenna as they change the characteristics of near field radiation. However, we show that placing a metal ring in the centre of the strip lines, which connect the ends of folded high-frequency dipoles, does not damage the performance of the feed. Instead it significantly improves the voltage standing wave ratio of the feed whilst other performance indicators are not compromised. Thus, our findings show an excellent way of improving the wide band feed. Based on this foundation, a new circularly polarised feed for operation between 0.4 to 2 GHz is introduced for the Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph in this paper. The issue of a feed impedance matching network is investigated. By optimising the impedance matching, the performance of the feed is enhanced with respect to the previous realisations of the Eleven feed. The simulation and experimental results show that the gain of the feed is about 10 dBi, and the VSWR is less than 2:1. In addition, the feed has a low axial ratio, fixed phase centre location, and constant beam width in the range of 0.4 to 2 GHz.
The NASA Kepler satellite has provided unprecedented high duty-cycle, high-precision light curves for a large number of stars by continuously monitoring a field of view in Cygnus-Lyra region, leading to great progress in both discovering exoplanets and characterizing planet-hosting stars by means of asteroseismic methods. The asteroseismic survey allows the investigation of stars covering the whole H-R diagram. However, the low precision of effective temperatures and surface gravities in the KIC catalogue and the lack of information on chemical composition, metallicity and rotation rate prevent asteroseismic modeling, requiring spectroscopic observations for thousands of asteroseismic targets in the Kepler field in a homogeneous way.
Flexible electronics and microsystems are an emerging technology with a tremedous impact to the future electronics and information technology and widespread applications. Various devices and microsystems have been developed. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are a type of essential device for electronics, microsensors and microsystems; however there is no activity on the development of flexible SAW devices yet. This paper reports the development of flexible SAW devices on cheap, bendable and disposable plastic films. Flexible SAW devices with resonant frequency of 198.1 MHz and 447 MHz for the Rayleigh and Lamb waves respectively have been obtained with a large transmission signal up to 18dB. The flexible SAW devices have also demonstrated their ability for acoustic streaming with a velocity up to 3.4 cm/s and for particle concentration. The results have clearly demonstrated that the flexible SAW devices have great potential for applications in electronics and microsystems.
It is well known that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 8 (ERK8) plays pivotal roles in various mitotic events. But its physiological roles in oocyte meiotic maturation remain unclear. In this study, we found that although no specific ERK8 signal was detected in oocyte at the germinal vesicle stage, ERK8 began to migrate to the periphery of chromosomes shortly after germinal vesicle breakdown. At prometaphase I, metaphase I (MI), anaphase I, telophase I, and metaphase II (MII) stages, ERK8 was stably detected at the spindles. By taxol treatment, we clarified that the ERK8 signal was stained on the spindle fibers as well as microtubule asters in MI and MII oocytes. In fertilized eggs, the ERK8 signal was not observed in the two pronuclei stages. At prometaphase, metaphase, and anaphase of the first mitosis, ERK8 was detected on the mitotic spindle. ERK8 knock down by antibody microinjection and specific siRNA caused abnormal spindles, failed chromosome congression, and decreased first polar body extrusion. Taken together, our results suggest that ERK8 plays an important role in spindle organization during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and early embryo cleavage.
Vitrification studies of actual Savannah River M-Area mixed wastes have
shown that the limiting factor for high waste loading of this waste stream
is its chemical durability as defined by the toxicity characteristics
leaching procedure (TCLP). As part of the optimization study of Savannah
River M-Area wastes, a number of additives were examined including
Na2O, Li2O, B2O3,
ZrO2, and TiO2. This paper reports on the effect of
varying the boron to total alkali ratio and on the effect of substitutions
such as ZrO2 for waste and TiO2 for SiO2 on
the chemical durability and processability of M-Area waste glasses.
Sequence-based variations in starch synthesis-related genes (SSRGs) exert a basic influence on the determination of eating quality in rice (Oryza sativa L.). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the sequence variations from parts of 10 SSRGs and the amylose content (AC) plus rapid viscosity analysis (RVA) profiles in a heuristic rice core set by association mapping (AM). In total, 86 sequence variations were found in 10 sequenced amplicons, including 79 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), six insertion-deletions (InDels) and one polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR). Among them, 61 variations were exon-based, of which 41 should lead to amino acid changes. Four subpopulations were revealed by population structure analysis based on 170 genome-wide SSR genotypes. The final AM showed a sum of four significant associations between three phenotypic indices and three sequence variations. An ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small unit 1 (OsAGPS1) SNP (A–G) was significantly associated with increased AC (P<0·001, R2=15·6%), while a 12-bp deletion of AGPase large unit 4 (OsAGPL4) was significantly related to the decreased breakdown viscosity (BDV) (P<0·001, R2=16·6%) in both general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM). This study provides a new perspective of allele mining for breeding strategies based on marker-assisted selection.
In this study, crystal orientation and polymorphism formation in electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) blend fibers after melt-recrystallization were studied. To achieve uniform alignment of electrospun fibers, mechanical stretching was applied to the as-spun nonwoven fibers at 110 °C. Pure ferroelectric β-PVDF crystals in the PAN matrix were achieved, and both polar β-PVDF and polar PAN crystals oriented with their chain axes parallel to the fiber axes. After melt-recrystallization of PVDF, a significant amount of ferroelectric β crystals was retained in addition to the formation of nonpolar α crystals. A polarized Fourier transform infrared study showed that the degree of orientation of ferroelectric β-PVDF crystals was higher than that of nonpolar α crystals, suggesting that the β-PVDF crystals should form at the PVDF/PAN interfaces because of strong dipolar and hydrogen bonding interactions between vinylidene fluoride and acrylonitrile units. The nonpolar α-PVDF crystals should form in the center of PVDF domains.