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This study aims to investigate the climate–malaria associations in nine cities selected from malaria high-risk areas in China. Daily reports of malaria cases in Anhui, Henan, and Yunnan Provinces for 2005–2012 were obtained from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Generalized estimating equation models were used to quantify the city-specific climate–malaria associations. Multivariate random-effects meta-regression analyses were used to pool the city-specific effects. An inverted-U-shaped curve relationship was observed between temperatures, average relative humidity, and malaria. A 1 °C increase of maximum temperature (Tmax) resulted in 6·7% (95% CI 4·6–8·8%) to 15·8% (95% CI 14·1–17·4%) increase of malaria, with corresponding lags ranging from 7 to 45 days. For minimum temperature (Tmin), the effect estimates peaked at lag 0 to 40 days, ranging from 5·3% (95% CI 4·4–6·2%) to 17·9% (95% CI 15·6–20·1%). Malaria is more sensitive to Tmin in cool climates and Tmax in warm climates. The duration of lag effect in a cool climate zone is longer than that in a warm climate zone. Lagged effects did not vanish after an epidemic season but waned gradually in the following 2–3 warm seasons. A warming climate may potentially increase the risk of malaria resurgence in China.
To determine the frequency of incidental findings found on magnetic resonance imaging scans of the internal auditory meatus performed to investigate audiovestibular symptoms, and to determine how to best manage these when found.
A retrospective review was conducted of internal auditory meatus magnetic resonance imaging scans during a three-month period in the radiology department at a UK district general hospital.
A total of 109 scans were reviewed. Of these, 92.7 per cent showed no retrocochlear pathology, 0.9 per cent showed vestibular schwannoma, 6.4 per cent revealed vascular loops, and 2.8 per cent showed incidental findings that warranted further action and investigation. Of the scans, 40.4 per cent showed other incidental pathologies such as age-related ischaemic changes, and sinus disease that required no further intervention. Of the magnetic resonance imaging scans reviewed, 49.5 per cent were entirely normal.
Almost half of the scans investigating audiovestibular symptoms showed incidental findings. Otolaryngologists should have an understanding of the significance of the most commonly encountered incidental findings, and should counsel patients appropriately and refer them onward when necessary.
The material properties of atomic layer deposited hybrid organic-inorganic aluminate thin films have been evaluated for potential low dielectric constant (i.e. low-k) applications. The hybrid aluminates were deposited using trimethyl aluminum and various linear and aromatic carboxylic acids. The observed electrical and mechanical properties for the hybrid aluminate films varied greatly depending on the selected organic acid with k values ranging from 2.5 to 5.1 and Young’s modulus ranging from 6 to 40 GPa. Leakage currents as low as 4 x 10-10 A/cm2 (at 2 MV/cm) were obtained for films grown using saturated linear carboxylic acids. These results suggest the potential of ALD hybrid aluminate thin films for low-k dielectric applications.
The potential of various quantitative lateral flow (LF) based assays utilizing up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporters for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis is reviewed including recent developments. Active infections are demonstrated by screening for the presence of regurgitated worm antigens (genus specific polysaccharides), whereas anti-Schistosoma antibodies may indicate ongoing as well as past infections. The circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in serum or urine (and potentially also saliva) is identified as the marker that may allow detection of single-worm infections. Quantitation of antigen levels is a reliable method to study effects of drug administration, worm burden and anti-fecundity mechanisms. Moreover, the ratio of CAA and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) is postulated to facilitate identification of either Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium infections. The UCP-LF assays allow simultaneous detection of multiple targets on a single strip, a valuable feature for antibody detection assays. Although antibody detection in endemic regions is not a useful tool to diagnose active infections, it gains potential when the ratio of different classes of antibody specific for the parasite/disease can be determined. The UCP-LF antibody assay format allows this type of multiplexing, including testing a linear array of up to 20 different targets. Multiple test spots would allow detection of specific antibodies, e.g. against different Schistosoma species or other pathogens as soil-transmitted helminths. Concluding, the different UCP-LF based assays for diagnosis of schistosomiasis provide a collection of tests with relatively low complexity and high sensitivity, covering the full range of diagnostics needed in control programmes for mapping, screening and monitoring.
Native to temperate South America, deeproot sedge has naturalized throughout the southeastern United States. Often forming dense, homogenous stands, deeproot sedge has become widespread, invasive, and potentially harmful ecologically throughout the coastal prairie ecoregion of Texas. Possessing characteristics (rapid growth, generalized habitat requirements) of other weedy congeners (purple nutsedge and yellow nutsedge), its relatively recent expansion highlights the critical need to develop effective control techniques and strategies for this species throughout this endangered ecoregion. Research was performed to delineate total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) trends in deeproot sedge rhizomes for development of a phenologically based schedule for herbicide applications and mechanical treatments. Overall, TNC levels were greatest in May to August and lowest from October to January, regardless of study area. Apparently, deeproot sedge exerts little energy into seed production because TNC levels were continually replenished throughout the growing season. As such, foliar-herbicide application throughout the growing season should achieve total plant kill. Conversely, deeproot sedge rhizome TNC levels never fell below 30%, even during winter, which indicates that winter mechanical treatments or winter prescribed fires will not be effective because substantial rhizome reserves are present to support resprouting during the next growing season. Beyond a priori prevention, sequential herbicide applications combined with integrated, sequential, prescribed fire and herbicide treatments will be needed for long-term deeproot sedge control throughout its geographic range.
In this work, we investigate the effects of Sb, Bi, or Te interlayers at the Mo/Cu-In-Ga interface on the reaction to form Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 in order to control void formation and improve adhesion. Interlayers with 10 nm thickness were evaporated onto the Mo back contact prior to sputtering the metal precursors. CIGSS absorber layers were formed by a three-step H2Se/Ar/H2S reaction and solar cells were fabricated. The influences of each interlayer were characterized in the precursor and reacted films in terms of the density of the void formation, film structure and morphology, adhesion, and device performance.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.