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The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS), like many rural states, faces clinical and research obstacles to which digital innovation is seen as a promising solution. To implement digital technology, a mobile health interest group was established to lay the foundation for an enterprise-wide digital health innovation platform. To create a foundation, an interprofessional team was established, and a series of formal networking events was conducted. Three online digital health training models were developed, and a full-day regional conference was held featuring nationally recognized speakers and panel discussions with clinicians, researchers, and patient advocates involved in digital health programs at UAMS. Finally, an institution-wide survey exploring the interest in and knowledge of digital health technologies was distributed. The networking events averaged 35–45 attendees. About 100 individuals attended the regional conference with positive feedback from participants. To evaluate mHealth knowledge at the institution, a survey was completed by 257 UAMS clinicians, researchers, and staff. It revealed that there are opportunities to increase training, communication, and collaboration for digital health implementation. The inclusion of the mobile health working group in the newly formed Institute for Digital Health and Innovation provides a nexus for healthcare providers and researches to facilitate translational research.
Understanding how catalysts work during chemical reactions is crucial when developing efficient catalytic materials. The dynamic processes involved are extremely sensitive to changes in pressure, gas environment and temperature. Hence, there is a need for spatially resolved operando techniques to investigate catalysts under working conditions and over time. The use of dedicated operando techniques with added detection of catalytic conversion presents a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms underlying the catalytic reactions systematically. Herein, we report on the detailed setup and technical capabilities of a modular, homebuilt gas feed system directly coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer, which allows for operando transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of heterogeneous catalysts. The setup is compatible with conventional, commercially available gas cell TEM holders, making it widely accessible and reproducible by the community. In addition, the operando functionality of the setup was tested using CO oxidation over Pt nanoparticles.
Little is known about who would benefit from Internet-based personalised nutrition (PN) interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of participants who achieved greatest improvements (i.e. benefit) in diet, adiposity and biomarkers following an Internet-based PN intervention. Adults (n 1607) from seven European countries were recruited into a 6-month, randomised controlled trial (Food4Me) and randomised to receive conventional dietary advice (control) or PN advice. Information on dietary intake, adiposity, physical activity (PA), blood biomarkers and participant characteristics was collected at baseline and month 6. Benefit from the intervention was defined as ≥5 % change in the primary outcome (Healthy Eating Index) and secondary outcomes (waist circumference and BMI, PA, sedentary time and plasma concentrations of cholesterol, carotenoids and omega-3 index) at month 6. For our primary outcome, benefit from the intervention was greater in older participants, women and participants with lower HEI scores at baseline. Benefit was greater for individuals reporting greater self-efficacy for ‘sticking to healthful foods’ and who ‘felt weird if [they] didn’t eat healthily’. Participants benefited more if they reported wanting to improve their health and well-being. The characteristics of individuals benefiting did not differ by other demographic, health-related, anthropometric or genotypic characteristics. Findings were similar for secondary outcomes. These findings have implications for the design of more effective future PN intervention studies and for tailored nutritional advice in public health and clinical settings.
While much of the literature on bilingualism and cognition focuses on group comparisons (monolinguals vs bilinguals or language learners vs controls), here we examine the potential differential effects of intensive language learning on subjects with distinct language experiences and demographic profiles. Using an individual differences approach, we assessed attentional performance from 105 university-educated Gaelic learners aged 21–85. Participants were tested before and after beginner, elementary, and intermediate courses using tasks measuring i.) sustained attention, ii.) inhibition, and iii.) attention switching. We examined the relationship between attentional performance and Gaelic level, previous language experience, gender, and age. Gaelic level predicted attention switching performance: those in higher levels initially outperformed lower levels, however lower levels improved the most. Age also predicted performance: as age increased attention switching decreased. Nevertheless, age did not interact with session for any attentional measure, thus the impact of language learning on cognition was detectable across the lifespan.
There is now a strong body of literature showing that bullying victimisation during childhood and adolescence precedes the later development of anxiety and depressive disorders. This study aimed to quantify the burden of anxiety and depressive disorders attributable to experiences of bullying victimisation for the Australian population.
This study updated a previous systematic review summarising the longitudinal association between bullying victimisation and anxiety and depressive disorders. Estimates from eligible studies published from inception until 18 August 2018 were included and meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Pooled relative risks were combined with a contemporary prevalence estimate for bullying victimisation for Australia in order to calculate population attributable fractions (PAFs) for the two mental disorder outcomes. PAFs were then applied to estimates of the burden of anxiety and depressive disorders in Australia expressed as disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).
The findings from this study suggest 7.8% of the burden of anxiety disorders and 10.8% of the burden of depressive disorders are attributable to bullying victimisation in Australia. An estimated 30 656 DALYs or 0.52% (95% uncertainty interval 0.33–0.72%) of all DALYs in both sexes and all ages in Australia were attributable to experiences of bullying victimisation in childhood or adolescence.
There is convincing evidence to demonstrate a causal relationship between bullying victimisation and mental disorders. This study showed that bullying victimisation contributes a significant proportion of the burden of anxiety and depressive disorders. The investment and implementation of evidence-based intervention programmes that reduce bullying victimisation in schools could reduce the burden of disease arising from common mental disorders and improve the health of Australians.
Reports of changes in patients’ social behavior during deep brain stimulation (DBS) raised the question whether DBS induces changes in personality. This study explored if (1) DBS is associated with changes in personality in patients suffering from treatment-resistant depression (TRD), (2) how personality dimensions and depression are associated, and (3) if TRD patients’ self-ratings of personality are valid.
TRD patients were assessed before DBS (n = 30), 6 months (t2, n = 21), 2 (t3, n = 17) and 5 years (t4, n = 11) after the initiation of DBS of the supero-lateral branch of the medial forebrain bundle (slMFB-DBS). Personality was measured with the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), depression severity with Hamilton (HDRS), and Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS).
Personality dimensions did not change with slMFB-DBS compared with baseline. Extraversion was negatively correlated with HDRS28 (r = −0.48, p < 0.05) and MADRS (r = −0.45, p < 0.05) at t2. Inter-rater reliability was high for the NEO-FFI at baseline (Cronbach's α = 0.74) and at t4 (α = 0.65). Extraversion [t(29) = −5.20; p < 0.001] and openness to experience [t(29) = −6.96; p < 0.001] differed statistically significant from the normative sample, and did not predict the antidepressant response.
slMFB-DBS was not associated with a change in personality. The severity of depression was associated with extraversion. Personality of TRD patients differed from the healthy population and did not change with response, indicating a possible scar effect. Self-ratings of personality seem valid to assess personality during TRD.
The Certificate Program in Translational Research (CPTR) at the Georgia Clinical and Translational Science Alliance provides Ph.D. students, postdoctoral fellows and faculty with didactic, mentored, and experiential training in clinical and translational research.
Quantitative evaluation includes tracking trainee competency, publications, grants and careers in clinical and translational research. Qualitative evaluation includes interviews with trainees about program experiences.
The CPTR provided knowledge and skills in clinical and translational research through coursework, clinical rotations, and collaboration with interdisciplinary scientists. Trainees reported increased confidence in 22 program competencies. Trainees have published more than 290 peer-reviewed articles and received over $4 million in grants from the NIH, over $15 million from the U.S. Department of Defense, and more than $300,000 from foundations. Trainees who completed the program remained in clinical and translational research.
Programs like the CPTR are needed to train investigators to advance biomedical discoveries into population health.
Research in the field of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has primarily focused on the acquisition and development of skills and competence. Little is known regarding the experience of training from trainees’ perspectives. This systematic review aimed to review and critique the research conducted on the experience of CBT training. Four electronic databases were searched for published studies reporting on the experience of CBT training. Thirteen articles were selected based on pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria and were assessed for quality using the Quality Assessment Tool for Studies with Diverse Designs (QATSDD; Sirriyeh et al., 2012). Due to the lack of consistency in the study designs and outcome measures used, a narrative synthesis of the findings was conducted. Findings were categorized within three themes for synthesis: ‘experience of benefit’, ‘internal processes of engagement’ and ‘external influences on engagement’. Overall, this review was able to draw conclusions regarding the experiences of aspects of CBT training from relatively good quality research. However, the review also highlights the lack of studies exploring specific hypotheses regarding the experience of training.
Research on the cities of the Classical Greek world has traditionally focused on mapping the organisation of urban space and studying major civic or religious buildings. More recently, newer techniques such as field survey and geophysical survey have facilitated exploration of the extent and character of larger areas within urban settlements, raising questions about economic processes. At the same time, detailed analysis of residential buildings has also supported a change of emphasis towards understanding some of the functional and social aspects of the built environment as well as purely formal ones. This article argues for the advantages of analysing Greek cities using a multidisciplinary, multi-scalar framework which encompasses all of these various approaches and adds to them other analytical techniques (particularly micro-archaeology). We suggest that this strategy can lead towards a more holistic view of a city, not only as a physical place, but also as a dynamic community, revealing its origins, development and patterns of social and economic activity. Our argument is made with reference to the research design, methodology and results of the first three seasons of fieldwork at the city of Olynthos, carried out by the Olynthos Project.
Most individuals who have lived in foster homes, residential care or adoptive families for substantial periods (‘people affected by public care or adoption’) show normal psychological adjustment as adults, although rates of mental disorders, hospital admission and suicide are increased. Research focusing on the experiences of this group of people can help professionals better understand their behaviour and attitude towards help. Psychiatric symptoms can be multifaceted, including complex trauma presentations. The specific mental health needs of this population are increasingly being recognised in child and adolescent mental health services but less so in adult services. In this article we describe life experiences of people affected by public care or adoption, examine the lifelong impact of these experiences on mental health and functioning, and offer practical suggestions for clinical work with them.
Marine reserves are simple management tools that exclude extractive and destructive human activities from areas of the ocean. Given that fishing is one of the greatest impacts in most coastal ecosystems, networks of marine reserves are recognised as a core part of implementing ecosystem-based management in marine systems. Research in New Zealand marine reserves has contributed disproportionately to the global understanding of how species and ecosystems respond to marine reserve protection. We use examples from New Zealand to demonstrate the unequivocal role that marine reserves play in protecting exploited species within their boundaries, and how the recovery of exploited species can have wider conservation and fisheries value through indirect mechanisms and the movement of individuals from reserves. Progress towards developing a comprehensive and representative network of marine reserves in New Zealand has been slow because of a lack of political will, marine protected area legislation, and clear scientific guidance on marine reserve network design. Based on progress in designing networks of marine reserves internationally, and their demonstrated role in protecting biodiversity, we recommend a set of scientific guidelines to aid future development of marine reserves networks in New Zealand, and recommend that such networks be at the core of future marine spatial planning processes.
Marine reserves are areas of the ocean that are protected from all extractive and destructive human activities (Lubchenco et al. 2003). They are often referred to as ‘no-take’ marine reserves as fishing is the main activity that is typically eliminated from a particular stretch of coast when a marine reserve is established. Given that fishing is the most widespread and historic human impact in coastal environments worldwide (Jackson et al. 2001) marine reserves provide a simple management tool to protect defined areas of the ocean from the impacts of fishing. While management of many fisheries is improving (Worm et al. 2009), there have been widespread calls to increase the level of protection for marine species through the implementation of networks of marine reserves worldwide (Wood et al. 2008). Fishing has a myriad of impacts on species as well as ecosystems through habitat disturbance and changes to food webs (Dayton et al. 2003). While marine reserves are not a panacea, as humans have a wide variety of impacts on marine ecosystems, they can protect the species and ecosystems within their boundaries from the effects of fishing.
This paper will discuss the history of the College of St Francis Xavier, the Welsh territorial district of the English Province of the Society of Jesus, and the history of Jesuit association with its headquarters, the Cwm farms at Llanrothal, near Hereford. One of 12 territorial divisions created by the Society of Jesus upon the creation of the English Province by 1623, the College of St Francis Xavier and its extensive surviving library, now housed at Hereford Cathedral, is being analysed as part of a three-year project funded by the UK Arts and Humanities Research Council [AHRC]. The article argues for a re-evaluation of the Welsh District and its importance to the successes of the English Jesuit Province, concluding that, far from being a small, local missionary outpost of the English Province of the Society of Jesus, the College of St Francis Xavier, or the Welsh District, was in fact a diverse, vibrant and crucially important lynchpin in the successes of the Jesuits in England and Wales.