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There is now a strong body of literature showing that bullying victimisation during childhood and adolescence precedes the later development of anxiety and depressive disorders. This study aimed to quantify the burden of anxiety and depressive disorders attributable to experiences of bullying victimisation for the Australian population.
This study updated a previous systematic review summarising the longitudinal association between bullying victimisation and anxiety and depressive disorders. Estimates from eligible studies published from inception until 18 August 2018 were included and meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Pooled relative risks were combined with a contemporary prevalence estimate for bullying victimisation for Australia in order to calculate population attributable fractions (PAFs) for the two mental disorder outcomes. PAFs were then applied to estimates of the burden of anxiety and depressive disorders in Australia expressed as disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).
The findings from this study suggest 7.8% of the burden of anxiety disorders and 10.8% of the burden of depressive disorders are attributable to bullying victimisation in Australia. An estimated 30 656 DALYs or 0.52% (95% uncertainty interval 0.33–0.72%) of all DALYs in both sexes and all ages in Australia were attributable to experiences of bullying victimisation in childhood or adolescence.
There is convincing evidence to demonstrate a causal relationship between bullying victimisation and mental disorders. This study showed that bullying victimisation contributes a significant proportion of the burden of anxiety and depressive disorders. The investment and implementation of evidence-based intervention programmes that reduce bullying victimisation in schools could reduce the burden of disease arising from common mental disorders and improve the health of Australians.
Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), also known as the brown marmorated stink bug, is an invasive agricultural and nuisance pest. Knowledge of the life history of insect pests is important for informing pest management activities. Some North American populations of H. halys have two generations per year, and it is suspected that H. halys may have a partial second generation in the Niagara Region of Ontario, Canada. We determined the number of H. halys generations in Ontario by examining the reproductive development of field-caught adult females. The pattern of reproductive development we observed supports the conclusion that H. halys complete one generation per year in the Niagara Region of Ontario. Reproductively active H. halys were captured as early as May and continued until early September, and the peak of reproductively active individuals occurred between 250 and 550 degree days calculated with a sine-wave function and a lower threshold set to 14.17 °C.
Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron disease resulting in muscle weakness, dysarthria and dysphagia, and ultimately respiratory failure leading to death. Half of the ALS patients survive less than 3 years, and 80% of the patients survive less than 5 years. Riluzole is the only approved medication in Canada with randomized controlled clinical trial evidence to slow the progression of ALS, albeit only to a modest degree. The Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry (CNDR) collects data on over 140 different neuromuscular diseases including ALS across ten academic institutions and 28 clinics including ten multidisciplinary ALS clinics. Methods: In this study, CNDR registry data were analyzed to examine potential differences in ALS care among provinces in time to diagnosis, riluzole and feeding tube use. Results: Significant differences were found among provinces, in time to diagnosis from symptom onset, in the use of riluzole and in feeding tube use. Conclusions: Future investigations should be undertaken to identify factors contributing to such differences, and to propose potential interventions to address the provincial differences reported.
There is now ample evidence that the quality of early attachment experiences shapes expectations for supportive and responsive care and ultimately serves to scaffold adaptation to the salient tasks of development. Nonetheless, few studies have identified neural mechanisms that might give rise to these associations. Using a moderately large sample of low-income male participants recruited during infancy (N = 171), we studied the predictive significance of attachment insecurity and disorganization at age 18 months (as measured in the Strange Situation Procedure) for patterns of neural activation to reward and loss at age 20 years (assessed during a reward-based task as part of a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan). Results indicated that individuals with a history of insecure attachment showed hyperactivity in (a) reward- and emotion-related (e.g., basal ganglia and amygdala) structures and (b) emotion regulation and self-referential processing (cortical midline structures) in response to positive and negative outcomes (and anticipation of those outcomes). Further, the neural activation of individuals with a history of disorganized attachment suggested that they had greater emotional reactivity in anticipation of reward and employed greater cognitive control when negative outcomes were encountered. Overall, results suggest that the quality of early attachments has lasting impacts on brain function and reward processing.
Civil society organizations are often seen as playing a crucial role in helping to mitigate the exclusion of weaker states, giving voice to marginalized communities, and raising environmental and developmental concerns within the trade system. The politicization and demystification of the global trade agenda by civil society also opens up space for a more diverse set of actors to influence trade negotiations. This article examines the evolution of the WTO secretariat's engagement with civil society within this context and argues that the dominant mode of engagement, as manifest in WTO Public Forums and civil society participation in ministerial conferences, is no longer fit for purpose. Rather it reflects an outmoded strategy that once served to underscore the existence and value of the WTO as an international organization and works to neutralize political contestation and publicly promote the benefits of free trade. It is now in need of reform.
Maltreatment is associated with chronic depression, high negative
self-attributions, and lifetime psychopathology. Adolescence is a sensitive
period for the formation of self-concept. Identifying neurobiomarkers of
self-processing in depressed adolescents with and without maltreatment may parse
the effects of trauma and depression on self-development and chronic
psychopathology. Depressed adolescents (n = 86)
maltreated due to omission (DO, n = 13) or
commission (DCM, n = 28) or without maltreatment
(DC, n = 45), and HCs (HC, n
= 37) appraised positive and negative self-descriptors in the
scanner. DCM and DO showed hypoactivity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex
(dACC) while processing positive versus negative self-descriptors compared to DC
youth, who in turn showed reduced dACC recruitment versus HC. HC youth showed
the highest activation in the dACC and striatum during positive
self-descriptors; these regions showed a linear decline in activity across DC,
DO, and DCM. Low dACC activity to positive versus negative self-descriptors was
linked to inadequate coregulation of children's emotions by parents.
Negative self-cognitions prevalent in DCM and DO adolescents may be perpetuated
by activity in the dACC and striatum. Reduced activation of the dACC and
striatum for positive self-descriptors, coupled with enhanced activity for
negative self-descriptors, may heighten the risk for persistent depression.
cerebellar hypoplasia is a rare malformation caused by a variety of etiologies. it usually manifests clinically as non-progressive cerebellar ataxia with or without mental retardation. we further characterize a syndrome of autosomal recessive cerebellar hypoplasia in the hutterite population, referred to as dysequilibrium syndrome (des). we reviewed 12 patients (eight females, four males; age range 4 to 33y) with this syndrome. patients were examined and underwent a standard set of investigations to characterize better the clinical features, natural history, and neuroimaging of this syndrome. des is an autosomal recessive disorder with distinct clinical features including global developmental delay, late ambulation (after age 6y), truncal ataxia, and a static clinical course. neuroimaging is characterized by hypoplasia of the inferior portion of the cerebellar hemispheres and vermis, and mild simplification of cortical gyri.
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