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To examine temporal changes in coverage with a complete primary series of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination and staffing shortages among healthcare personnel (HCP) working in nursing homes in the United States before, during, and after the implementation of jurisdiction-based COVID-19 vaccination mandates for HCP.
Sample and setting:
HCP in nursing homes from 15 US jurisdictions.
We analyzed weekly COVID-19 vaccination data reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Healthcare Safety Network from June 7, 2021, through January 2, 2022. We assessed 3 periods (preintervention, intervention, and postintervention) based on the announcement of vaccination mandates for HCP in 15 jurisdictions. We used interrupted time-series models to estimate the weekly percentage change in vaccination with complete primary series and the odds of reporting a staffing shortage for each period.
Complete primary series vaccination among HCP increased from 66.7% at baseline to 94.3% at the end of the study period and increased at the fastest rate during the intervention period for 12 of 15 jurisdictions. The odds of reporting a staffing shortage were lowest after the intervention.
These findings demonstrate that COVID-19 vaccination mandates may be an effective strategy for improving HCP vaccination coverage in nursing homes without exacerbating staffing shortages. These data suggest that mandates can be considered to improve COVID-19 coverage among HCP in nursing homes to protect both HCP and vulnerable nursing home residents.
The incidence of infections from extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E) is increasing in the United States. We describe the epidemiology of ESBL-E at 5 Emerging Infections Program (EIP) sites.
During October–December 2017, we piloted active laboratory- and population-based (New York, New Mexico, Tennessee) or sentinel (Colorado, Georgia) ESBL-E surveillance. An incident case was the first isolation from normally sterile body sites or urine of Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae/oxytoca resistant to ≥1 extended-spectrum cephalosporin and nonresistant to all carbapenems tested at a clinical laboratory from a surveillance area resident in a 30-day period. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from medical records. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) performed reference antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing on a convenience sample of case isolates.
We identified 884 incident cases. The estimated annual incidence in sites conducting population-based surveillance was 199.7 per 100,000 population. Overall, 800 isolates (96%) were from urine, and 790 (89%) were E. coli. Also, 393 cases (47%) were community-associated. Among 136 isolates (15%) tested at the CDC, 122 (90%) met the surveillance definition phenotype; 114 (93%) of 122 were shown to be ESBL producers by clavulanate testing. In total, 111 (97%) of confirmed ESBL producers harbored a blaCTX-M gene. Among ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, 52 (54%) were ST131; 44% of these cases were community associated.
The burden of ESBL-E was high across surveillance sites, with nearly half of cases acquired in the community. EIP has implemented ongoing ESBL-E surveillance to inform prevention efforts, particularly in the community and to watch for the emergence of new ESBL-E strains.
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is an important cause of healthcare-associated infections with limited treatment options and high mortality. To describe risk factors for mortality, we evaluated characteristics associated with 30-day mortality in patients with CRAB identified through the Emerging Infections Program (EIP). Methods: From January 2012 through December 2017, 8 EIP sites (CO, GA, MD, MN, NM, NY, OR, TN) participated in active, laboratory-, and population-based surveillance for CRAB. An incident case was defined as patient’s first isolation in a 30-day period of A. baumannii complex from sterile sites or urine with resistance to ≥1 carbapenem (excluding ertapenem). Medical records were abstracted. Patients were matched to state vital records to assess mortality within 30 days of incident culture collection. We developed 2 multivariable logistic regression models (1 for sterile site cases and 1 for urine cases) to evaluate characteristics associated with 30-day mortality. Results: We identified 744 patients contributing 863 cases, of which 185 of 863 cases (21.4%) died within 30 days of culture, including 113 of 257 cases (44.0%) isolated from a sterile site and 72 of 606 cases (11.9%) isolated from urine. Among 628 hospitalized cases, death occurred in 159 cases (25.3%). Among hospitalized fatal cases, death occurred after hospital discharge in 27 of 57 urine cases (47.4%) and 21 of 102 cases from sterile sites (20.6%). Among sterile site cases, female sex, intensive care unit (ICU) stay after culture, location in a healthcare facility, including a long-term care facility (LTCF), 3 days before culture, and diagnosis of septic shock were associated with increased odds of death in the model (Fig. 1). In urine cases, age 40–54 or ≥75 years, ICU stay after culture, presence of an indwelling device other than a urinary catheter or central line (eg, endotracheal tube), location in a LTCF 3 days before culture, diagnosis of septic shock, and Charlson comorbidity score ≥3 were associated with increased odds of mortality (Fig. 2). Conclusion: Overall 30-day mortality was high among patients with CRAB, including patients with CRAB isolated from urine. A substantial fraction of mortality occurred after discharge, especially among patients with urine cases. Although there were some differences in characteristics associated with mortality in patients with CRAB isolated from sterile sites versus urine, LTCF exposure and severe illness were associated with mortality in both patient groups. CRAB was associated with major mortality in these patients with evidence of healthcare experience and complex illness. More work is needed to determine whether prevention of CRAB infections would improve outcomes.
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a major public health problem. Ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA) is a treatment option for CRE approved in 2015; however, it does not have activity against isolates with metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). Emerging resistance to CZA is a cause for concern. Our objective was to describe the microbiologic and epidemiologic characteristics of CZA-resistant (CZA-R) CRE. Methods: From 2015 to 2017, 9 states participated in laboratory- and population-based surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, K. aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates from a normally sterile site or urine. A convenience sample of isolates from this surveillance were sent to the CDC for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) using reference broth microdilution (BMD) including an MBL screen, species confirmation with MALDI-TOF, and real-time PCR to detect blaKPC, blaNDM, and blaOXA-48–like genes. Additional AST by BMD was performed on CZA-R isolates using meropenem-vaborbactam (MEV), imipenem-relebactam (IMR), plazomicin (PLZ), and eravacycline (ERV). Epidemiologic data were obtained from a medical record review. Community-associated cases were defined as having no healthcare exposures in the year prior to culture, no devices in place 2 days prior to culture, and culture collected before calendar day 3 after hospital admission. Data were analyzed in 3 groups: CRE that were CZA-susceptible (CZA-S), CZA-R that were due to blaNDM, and CZA-R without blaNDM. Results: Among 606 confirmed CRE tested with CZA, 33 (5.4%) were CZA-R. Of the CZA-R isolates, 16 (48.5%) harbored a blaNDM gene, of which 2 coharbored blaNDM and blaOXA-48-like genes; 9 (27.3%) harbored only a blaKPC gene. Of the 17 CZA-R isolates without blaNDM, all were MBL screen negative. CZA-R due to blaNDM were more frequently community-associated (43.8%) than CZA-S or CZA-R without blaNDM (11.0% and 5.9%, respectively); a higher percentage of CZA-R cases due to blaNDM also had recent international travel (25%) compared to the other groups (1.8% and 5.9%, respectively). CZA-R without blaNDM were more susceptible to MEV (76%), IMR (71%), PLZ (88%), and ERV (65%) compared to CZA-R due to blaNDM (19%, 6%, 56%, and 44%, respectively). Conclusions: The emergence of CZA-R isolates without blaNDM are concerning; however, these isolates are more susceptible to newer antimicrobials than those with blaNDM. In addition to high rates of resistance to newer antimicrobials, isolates with blaNDM are more frequently community-associated than other CRE. This underscores the need for more aggressive measures to stop the spread of CRE.
Background: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing (ESBL) Escherichia coli infection incidence is increasing in the United States. This increase may be due to the rapid expansion of ST131, which is now the predominant ESBL strain globally, often multidrug resistant, and has been shown to establish longer-term human colonization than other E. coli strains. We assessed potential risk factors that distinguish ST131 from other ESBL E. coli. Methods: From October 1 through December 31, 2017, 5 CDC Emerging Infections Program (EIP) sites pilot tested active, laboratory-based surveillance in selected counties in Colorado, Georgia, New Mexico, New York, and Tennessee. An E. coli case was defined as the first isolation from a normally sterile body site or urine in a surveillance area resident in a 30-day period resistant to 1 extended-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic and susceptible or intermediate to all carbapenem antibiotics tested. Epidemiologic data were collected from case patients’ medical records. A convenience sample of 117 E. coli isolates from case patients was collected. All isolates underwent whole-genome sequencing to determine sequence type and the presence of ESBL genes. We compared ST131 E. coli epidemiology to other ESBL E. coli. Results: Among 117 E. coli isolates, 97 (83%) were ESBL producers. Of the 97 ESBL E. coli, 52 (54%) were ST131 (range, for 4 EIP sites submitting >10 isolates: 25%–88%; P < .001). Other common STs were ST38 (12%) and ST10 (5%). ST131 infections were more likely to be healthcare-associated than non-ST131 (56% vs 36%; P = .05) (Table 1). Among specific prior healthcare exposures, only residence in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in the year before culture was more common among ST131 case patients (29% vs 11%; P = .03). Notably, 85% of ESBL E. coli collected from LTCF residents were ST131. ST131 E. coli were more common among patients with underlying medical conditions (81% vs 60%; P = .02). No statistically significant difference by sex, race, age, culture source, location of culture collection, and frequency of antibiotic use in the prior 30 days was observed. Conclusions:The prevalence of ST131 E. coli varies regionally. The association between ST131 and LTCFs suggests that these may be particularly important settings for ST131 acquisition. Improving infection control measures that limit ESBL transmission in these settings and preventing dissemination in facilities receiving patients from LTCFs may be necessary to contain ST131 spread.
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is a serious threat to patient safety due to limited treatment options and propensity to spread in healthcare settings. Using Emerging Infections Program (EIP) data, we describe changes in CRAB incidence and epidemiology. Methods: During January 2012 to December 2018, 9 sites (Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee) participated in active laboratory- and population-based surveillance. An incident case was defined as the first isolation of A. baumannii complex, in a 30-day period, resistant to ≥1 carbapenem (excluding ertapenem) from a normally sterile site or urine of a surveillance area resident. Cases were considered hospital-onset (HO) if the culture was collected >3 days after hospital admission; all others were community-onset (CO). Cases were classified as device-associated (DA) if the patient had 1 or more medical devices (ie, urinary catheter, central venous catheter (CVC), endotracheal/nasotracheal tube, tracheostomy, or another indwelling device) present in the 2 days prior to culture collection. Temporal trends were estimated using generalized linear models adjusted for age, race, sex, and EIP site. Results: Overall, 984 incident CRAB cases were identified, representing 849 patients. Among these patients, 291 (34%) were women, 510 (61%) were nonwhite, and the median age was 62 years (mean, 59; range, 0–102). Among the cases, 226 (23%) were HO; 758 (77%) were CO; and 793 (81%) were DA. Overall incidence rates in 2012 and 2018 were 1.58 (95% CI, 1.29–1.90) and 0.60 (95% CI, 0.40–0.67) per 100,000 population, respectively. There was a 15% annual decrease in incidence (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] 0.85; 95% CI: 0.82-0.88, P < .0001). Decreases were observed among sterile site (aRR 0.88; 95% CI, 0.84–0.93) and urine cases (aRR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.80–0.87). Annual decreases occurred for HO cases (aRR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.73–0.85) and CO cases (aRR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.83–0.9). The DA cases decreased 16% annually overall (aRR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.81–0.88). Decreases among cases in patients with CVC (aRR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.80–0.90) and urinary catheters (aRR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80–0.88) were smaller than what was seen in patients with other indwelling devices (aRR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.77–0.86). Discussion: Overall, from 2012 to 2018, the incidence of CRAB decreased >60%. Decreases were observed in all case groups, regardless of source, infection onset location, or types of devices. Smaller annual decreases in rates of CO-CRAB than HO-CRAB suggest that there may be opportunities to accelerate prevention outside the hospital to further reduce the incidence of these difficult-to-treat infections.
Background: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-Ent) have emerged as a significant antimicrobial-resistance threat in the community in recent years. To better characterize ESBL-Ent in the community, we examined associations between community-associated ESBL-Ent incidence rates and area-based socioeconomic status (SES) characteristics. Methods: Cases were identified through active, laboratory- and population-based surveillance for ESBL-Ent in 3 Emerging Infections Program (EIP) sites (New Mexico, New York, and Tennessee) from October through December 2017. We defined a case as first isolation of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or K. oxytoca from a normally sterile body specimen or urine in a surveillance-site resident, with resistance to ≥1 extended-spectrum cephalosporin and nonresistance to all carbapenems tested. Epidemiologic data were abstracted from medical records. Cases were considered community associated if no significant prior healthcare exposures (ie, inpatient healthcare facility stay, surgery, chronic dialysis, indwelling devices, or external catheters) were documented. Case residential addresses were geocoded and linked to US Census Bureau data to obtain census-tract level SES measures. Census tracts were dichotomized by the percentage living in rural areas (0–49% or ≥50%); census tracts were stratified into quartiles for all other characteristics. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) for each measure, controlling for EIP site, were calculated using Poisson regression. Results: Among 742 ESBL-Ent cases with medical records available, 355 (47.1%) were community associated; of these, 327 case addresses (92.1%) were successfully geocoded. The combined annualized 2017 incidence rate for community-associated ESBL-Ent was 83.2 cases per 100,000 persons. The highest incidence of community-associated ESBL-Ent was seen in census tracts with the lowest median income (IRR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0–2.0) and with the highest percentages of persons without health insurance (IRR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0–1.7), with <12th-grade education (IRR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–2.1), living in urban areas (IRR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0–2.2), foreign-born (IRR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0–2.0), or speaking limited English (IRR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–2.0). There were no significant differences across quartiles for population density, income inequality, the percentage of the population living below poverty, or the percentage of households with crowding (>1 occupant or room). Conclusions: Social determinants of health, such as coverage for healthcare, appear to be important contributors to community-associated ESBL-Ent transmission. Higher rates in areas with more foreign-born persons and persons with limited English proficiency suggest a role for recent travel in importation and spread in specific communities. These findings provide additional information about the epidemiology of ESBL-Ent in the community and have potential implications for control efforts.
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