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The surface topology of biomaterial has a definite effect on the growth behavior of nerve cells for peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, the silk fibroin (SF) film with different anisotropic microgroove/ridge was constructed by micropatterning technology. The effects of topologies width on the directional growth of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were evaluated. The results showed that the topological structure of the SF film with higher SF concentration was more clear and complete. The microtopography of the SF film with a concentration of 15% and a groove width of around 30 μm could effectively guide the directional growth of the nerve fibers of DRG. And nerve fibers could obviously form nerve fiber bundles which may have a certain pavement effect on the recovery of nerve function. The study indicated that the SF film with a specific width of the topological structure may have potential applications in the field of directional nerve regeneration.
Current evidences on the association between hyperuricaemia and retinol intake remain inconsistent. Furthermore, no known studies have investigated the relationship between hyperuricaemia and retinol intake from animal food and plant food separately. This study aimed to assess the relationship between different sources of retinol intake and risk of hyperuricaemia among US adults.
Univariate and multivariate weighted logistic regression models and restricted cubic spline models were used to assess the associations of total, animal-derived and plant-derived retinol intakes with the risk of hyperuricaemia. Dietary retinol was measured through two 24-h dietary recall interviews. Hyperuricaemia was defined as serum uric acid level ≥7·0 and ≥6·0 mg/dl in men and women, respectively.
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2014 were used in this cross-sectional study.
Overall, 12 869 participants aged ≥20 years were included.
Compared with the lowest quintile, the multivariable OR of hyperuricaemia for the highest quintile intake of total, animal-derived and plant-derived retinol were 0·71 (95 % CI 0·52, 0·96), 0·76 (95 % CI 0·59, 0·96) and 0·92 (95 % CI 0·72, 1·17), respectively. The inverse association between dietary intake of total retinol and the risk of hyperuricaemia was observed in men. Dose–response analyses revealed a novel linear trend between the risk of hyperuricaemia and total, animal-derived retinol intake separately.
Our findings indicated that intakes of total and animal-derived retinol were negatively associated with hyperuricaemia in US adults.
To invest the expression of nuclear receptors-mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and receptors-glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the locus ceruleus neurons of PTSD-like rats.
Single prolonged stress (SPS) was used to produce the PTSD model and rats were randomly divided into 24h, 4d, 7d, 14d and 28d groups after SPS and a normal control group.Immunohistochemical and Western blot techniques were used to observe and detect the changes in the expression of MR and GR in the locus ceruleus neurons, and image analysis and statistical analysis were performed.
The expression of MR was sharply decreased at 24h, but recovered at 4d, 7d, 14d and 28d. GR was distributed in the nucleus of coeruleus neurons, GR expression was showed after 24h, 4d, 7d treament and gradually increased, restorative downregulation was seen after 14d and 28d, but still high(P < 0.05).
These results suggest that the changes in the expression of MR and GR in the locus ceruleus neurons of PTSD-like rats may play an important role in the long-term persistent neu-ropsychological sequelae of PTSD. *National Natural Science Foundation of China.
To gain more comprehensive understanding of metabolic syndrome (Mets) among in general Chinese population.
Cross-sectional study. Mets was defined by three widely accepted definitions including modified Adults Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria, International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and harmonized definition. Risk factors were evaluated by using multivariate logistic regression.
Nineteen rural villages in northeast China.
The survey was conducted in September 2017 and May 2018 on 10 926 individuals.
According to modified ATP III criteria, IDF criteria and harmonised definition, the overall prevalence of Mets was 41·3 % (95 % CI 40·3, 42·2), 34·2 % (95 % CI 33·2, 35·1) and 44·1 % (95 % CI 43·1, 45·1), respectively. Females had a higher prevalence, and elevated blood pressure was the most frequent. Age, female sex, non-peasant worker, higher BMI and lower-annual income were independent risk factors of Mets in all three definitions (all ps < 0·05). Based on modified ATP III criteria and harmonised definition, heavy drinking was positively correlated with Mets. In contrast, former drinking was inversely associated with Mets.
Mets is highly prevalent in rural areas of northeast China. Its independent risk factors include higher age, female sex, non-peasantry worker, higher BMI and lower-annual income. Modified ATP III criteria and harmonised definition may be superior definitions of Mets.
To explore whether and how group cognitive-behavioural therapy (GCBT) plus medication differs from medication alone for the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD).
Hundred and seventy patients were randomly assigned to the GCBT plus duloxetine (n=89) or duloxetine group (n=81). The primary outcomes were Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) response and remission rates. The explorative secondary measures included score reductions from baseline in the HAMA total, psychic, and somatic anxiety subscales (HAMA-PA, HAMA-SA), the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Severity Subscale of Clinical Global Impression Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 4-week, 8-week, and 3-month follow-up.
At 4 weeks, HAMA response (GCBT group 57.0% vs. control group 24.4%, p=0.000, Cohen’s d=0.90) and remission rates (GCBT group 21.5% vs. control group 6.2%, p=0.004; d=0.51), and most secondary outcomes (all p<0.05, d=0.36−0.77) showed that the combined therapy was superior. At 8 weeks, all the primary and secondary significant differences found at 4 weeks were maintained with smaller effect sizes (p<0.05, d=0.32−0.48). At 3-month follow-up, the combined therapy was only significantly superior in the HAMA total (p<0.045, d=0.43) and HAMA-PA score reductions (p<0.001, d=0.77). Logistic regression showed superiority of the combined therapy for HAMA response rates [odds ratio (OR)=2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02−4.42, p=0.04] and remission rates (OR=2.80, 95% CI 1.27−6.16, p=0.01).
Compared with duloxetine alone, GCBT plus duloxetine showed significant treatment response for GAD over a shorter period of time, particularly for psychic anxiety symptoms, which may suggest that GCBT was effective in changing cognitive style.
In this paper, instabilities in the flow over a circular cylinder of diameter
with dual splitter plates attached to its rear surface are numerically investigated using the spectral element method. The key parameters are the splitter plate length
, the attachment angle
and the Reynolds number
. The presence of the plates was found to significantly modify the flow topology, leading to substantial changes in both the primary and secondary instabilities. The results showed that the three instability modes present in the bare circular cylinder wake still exist in the wake of the present configurations and that, in general, the occurrences of modes A and B are delayed, while the onset of mode QP is earlier in the presence of the splitter plates. Furthermore, two new synchronous modes, referred to as mode A
and mode B
, are found to develop in the wake. Mode A
is similar to mode A but with a quite long critical wavelength. Mode B
shares the same spatio-temporal symmetries as mode B but has a distinct spatial structure. With the exception of the case of
, mode A
persists for all configurations investigated here and always precedes the transition through mode A. The onset of mode B
. The characteristics of all the transition modes are analysed, and their similarities and differences are discussed in detail in comparison with the existing modes. In addition, the physical mechanism responsible for the instability mode B
is proposed. The weakly nonlinear feature of mode B
, as well as that of mode A
, is assessed by employing the Landau model. Finally, selected three-dimensional simulations are performed to confirm the existence of these two new modes and to investigate the nonlinear evolution of the three-dimensional modes.
This article reports on the growth kinetics of cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles prepared via a sintering method. By varying the sintering temperatures and periods of time, particle size of CeO2 nanoparticles was tuned from 11 to 100 nm. Ostwald ripening mechanism prevails in the growth process, and the growth kinetics is determined to follow an equation, D5 = 16.25 + 3.6 × 1020 exp(−344.20/RT) in the temperature range of 700 to 1000°C. After dispersing Pt on CeO2 nanoparticles, the size effect for the catalytic performance of the CO oxidation reaction was researched. When temperature and period of time are set at 700 °C and 2 h, respectively, dispersion of Pt onto CeO2 nanoparticles led to the largest quantity of chemisorbed oxygen species on the surface and the best catalytic performance. The findings reported here would provide a feasible path for the preparation of advanced catalysts in the future and moreover to discover novel size-dependent supports for many catalytic applications.
Solid-state batteries are promising candidates for energy storage due to their potential advantages in safety, working temperature range, and energy density compared to traditional liquid-electrolyte-based batteries. Rational battery architecture design and a scalable fabrication approach are critical to realize solid-state batteries. In this article, we present the architecture, fabrication procedure, and related challenges of sulfide and oxide electrolyte-based solid-state batteries. Approaches toward intimate solid−solid contact, thin solid-electrolyte fabrication, and scale-up production are discussed. Finally, we discuss the future research directions of solid-state batteries.
Monosized spherical Cu–20% Sn (wt%) alloy particles with diameter ranging from 70.6 to 334.0 μm were prepared by the pulsated orifice ejection method (termed “POEM”). Fully dense without pores and bulk inclusions, the cross-sectional micrographs of the spherical alloy particles indicate an even distribution of Cu and Sn. These spherical Cu–Sn alloy particles exhibit a good spherical shape and a narrow size distribution, suggesting that the liquid Cu–Sn alloy can completely break the balance between the surface tension and the liquid static pressure in the crucible micropores and accurately control the volume of the droplets. Furthermore, the cooling rate of spherical Cu–20% Sn alloy particles is estimated by a Newton’s cooling model. The cooling rate of the Cu–20% Sn alloy particle decreases gradually with the particle diameter increasing. Smaller particles have higher cooling rates and when the particle diameter is less than 70 μm, the cooling rate of particles can reach more than 3.3 × 104 K/s. The secondary dendrite arm spacing has strong dependence on particle diameter which increases gradually with the increase of particle diameter. The results demonstrate that POEM is an effective route for fabrication of high-quality monosized Cu–20% Sn alloy particles.
The Chinese Solar and Geophysical Data (CSGD) was first issued at the Beijing Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences (now the headquarter of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences) in 1971, when China’s satellite-industry was booming. CSGD covers the observational data (observations of the sunspots, solar flares, solar radio bursts, ionospheric storm and geomagnetic storm) from a couple of domestic observatories and the forecast data. The compiler of CSGD still keeps the data exchange with other institutes worldwide. The type of the dataset includes texts, tables, figures and so on. Up to now, we have electronized all the historic archives, making them easily accessible to people who are interested in them.
In the light curves of some solar-type stars, both rotational modulation (caused by corotating bright or dark magnetic features) and flare phenomena can be seen simultaneously. Based on these light curve observations, the relation between stellar magnetic feature activity (reflected by the rotational modulation component of the light curves) and flare activity can be investigated. Here, we analyze the light curve data of a flare-abundant solar-type star, KIC 6034120, observed with Kepler space telescope, and describe magnetic feature activity property by fluctuation range of light curves and flare activity property by time occupation ratio of flares. Distinct phase difference between long-term magnetic feature activity and flare activity is found for this star, which indicates that the source regions of stellar flares (e.g., starspots) on this star do not dominate the rotational modulation of light curves, yet they might be related to a same stellar dynamo process.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To create a composite index, referred to as the Pediatric Hydrocephalus Severity Index (PHSI), to classify the severity of disease at baseline and predict outcomes among children treated for hydrocephalus. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The Hydrocephalus Outcome Questionnaire will be administered in person or online to the parents of 150 patients between the ages of 5 and 18 years who are followed at the Neurosurgery Clinic at St. Louis Children’s Hospital for hydrocephalus. Patients must have been diagnosed and treated for hydrocephalus at least 6 months prior to the survey date. Potential participants are excluded if their health status changed during the 4 weeks prior to survey date, as determined by the child’s parents. Potential risk factors (see anticipated results) will be identified on retrospective medical record review. We will create a clinical prediction rule, called the PHSI, to stratify patients on likelihood of experiencing a poor long-term outcome after surgical treatment. Participants will be classified as “good” or “poor” outcome based on thresholds set for questionnaire results. We will use a combination of bivariate analysis and clinical reasoning to restrict the number of factors for further analysis, and multivariate logistic regression to build a predictive model for poor outcome. Creation of the PHSI will involve assigning integer values to adjusted odds ratios for significant risk factors at a 95% confidence level. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Risk factors that we anticipate will be predictive of long-term clinical outcome include signs and symptoms at onset (bulging fontanel, splayed sutures, papilledema, up-gaze palsy, headache, vomiting, lethargy), head circumference above the 97th percentile, frontal-occipital horn ratio greater than 0.4, etiology of meningitis or neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage, central nervous system comorbidities (seizures, Chiari malformation, scoliosis, periventricular leukomalacia), preoperative infection or sepsis, and frequent shunt revisions or infections. We hypothesize that a PHSI will be a valuable tool for stratifying patients in future research studies, as well as aiding prognosis in clinical situations. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: A validated composite PHSI would be a major advance in clinical hydrocephalus research and practice. A PHSI would allow investigators to stratify patients based on initial presentation for clinical research studies, which may in turn lead to the establishment of more standardized treatment guidelines. It would also facilitate studies investigating differential utilization of healthcare resources based on disease severity. Clinically, a PHSI would better equip physicians to counsel parents on what to expect for their child or future healthcare resource requirements.
It is well known that the energy for solar eruptions comes from magnetic fields in solar active regions. Magnetic energy storage and dissipation are regarded as important physical processes in the solar corona. With incomplete theoretical modeling for eruptions in the solar atmosphere, activity forecasting is mainly supported with statistical models. Solar observations with high temporal and spatial resolution continuously from space well describe the evolution of activities in the solar atmosphere, and combined with three dimensional reconstruction of solar magnetic fields, makes numerical short-term (within hours to days) solar activity forecasting possible. In the current report, we propose the erupting frequency and main attack direction of solar eruptions as new forecasts and present the prospects for numerical short-term solar activity forecasting based on the magnetic topological framework in solar active regions.
Magnetic activity information is concealed in the shape of stellar light curves owing to the process of rotational modulation. We developed approaches to extract magnetic activity characteristics from stellar light curves, and applied the method to a solar-type star observed with Kepler space telescope and also to the Sun for comparison. The result reveals distinct magnetic activity discrepancies between the solar-type star and the Sun. (1) The light-curve periodicity of the solar-type star is generally stronger than that of the Sun. (2) For the solar-type star, when the range of light-curve fluctuation is larger, the periodicity is also higher; while for the Sun, only during the solar minima with minimal range of fluctuation, the light curves show some periodicity. We propose that on the solar-type star, it is the large-scale magnetic field that leads to the light curves with both high periodicity and large range of fluctuation.
A series of oxidation experiments were carried out on these novel γ/γ′-strengthened cobalt-based alloys of the systems Co–9Al–10W and Co–9Al–10W–0.02X (X = La, Ce, Dy, Y) at 900 °C. The appropriate amounts’ addition of rare earth elements leads to improved oxidation properties at 900 °C, especially La elements show the best oxidation resistance (129.008 mg/cm2). However, the base Co–9Al–10W alloy shows the worst oxidation performance (151.544 mg/cm2). Multilayer oxide layers formed during the oxidation process, the outer were mainly CoO and Co3O4 oxides, and the middle layer contained complex oxides (containing Co, Al, and W). The inner layer consists of little discontinuous oxides, included few Al2O3 oxides. There existed a different crack width and the base alloy had the widest crack. Moreover, there exists a phase transformation (γ/γ′ to γ/Co3W) at the interface between oxide film and substrate.
The lithium ion battery is the most promising battery candidate to power battery electric vehicles. For these vehicles to be competitive with those powered by conventional internal combustion engines, significant improvements in battery performance are needed, especially in the energy density and power delivery capabilities. Promising substitutes for graphite as the anode material include silicon, tin, germanium, and various metal oxides that have much higher theoretical storage capacities and operated at slightly higher and safer potentials. In this critical review, metal oxides-based materials for lithium ion battery anodes are reviewed in detail together with the progress which is made in my lab on that topic. Their advantages, disadvantages, and performance in lithium ion batteries are discussed through extensive analysis of the literature, and new trends in materials development are also reviewed. Two important future research directions are proposed and performed in my lab, based on results published in the literature: the development of composite and nanostructured metal oxides to overcome the major challenge posed by the high capacity of metal oxide anodes.
Three different methods are evaluated for the introduction of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) in hierarchical carbon- or glass fiber reinforced plastics. They involve; (1) direct infusion of GNP filled epoxy resin, (2) spray coating of GNP on fiber preforms and (3) the use of dissolvable thermoplastic interleaf carrier films. Direct infusion of GNP filled resin is the easiest method to deliver GNP into composite laminates but may lead to viscosity and filtration issues. Automated spray coating was set up to manufacture GNP modified carbon- or glass fiber fabrics, while graphene filled phenoxy interleaf films were manufactured by bar coating, both followed by resin infusion using neat epoxy resin to produce GNP modified epoxy laminates, without the disadvantages of GNP filled resins. No substantial difference in interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) for composites manufactured using the different delivery methods is found. However, the electrical conductivity of the GNP modified glass-fiber composites manufactured by spray coating of glass fabrics is two orders of magnitude higher than for laminates made by direct infusion of GNP modified resin.
Three-roll milling (TRM) has proven to be an effective method to disperse 1D nanofillers like carbon nanotubes in polymer resins. However, until now only limited research has been performed on using this method to exfoliate and disperse 2D nanofillers, such as graphene and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) with preserved lateral dimension. In the present work, a systematic study of TRM processing parameters on final nanocomposite properties is presented, resulting in improved GNP/epoxy nanocomposite properties after the optimization of TRM parameters such as mode, speed, cycles, gap distance, and resin temperature. Electrical conductivity of the final GNP/epoxy nanocomposites is increased by six orders of magnitude, while at the same time a high mechanical reinforcement is achieved as well.
In this paper, the recent studies of laboratory astrophysics with strong magnetic fields in China have been reviewed. On the Shenguang-II laser facility of the National Laboratory on High-Power Lasers and Physics, a laser-driven strong magnetic field up to 200 T has been achieved. The experiment was performed to model the interaction of solar wind with dayside magnetosphere. Also the low beta plasma magnetic reconnection (MR) has been studied. Theoretically, the model has been developed to deal with the atomic structures and processes in strong magnetic field. Also the study of shock wave generation in the magnetized counter-streaming plasmas is introduced.
A compact dual-frequency antenna with enhanced bandwidth is proposed in this paper. Dual-frequency operation is realized by cutting a slot in the elliptical patch, and bandwidth enhancement is achieved by using a partial ground plane. Compared with the conventional half-wave antenna, the antenna has a compact size of 24 × 20 mm2, which equals to 0.38 λ1 × 0.31 λ1 (λ1, the guided wavelength at the first resonant frequency). The dual-frequency antenna with a partial rectangle ground and a partial arc-shaped ground is investigated for impedance matching. Simulated results indicate that the antenna with a partial arc-shaped ground can obtain a larger bandwidth for two bands than that with a partial rectangle ground. Experimental results show that the antenna with a partial arc-shaped ground can operate in 2.4 and 5 GHz bands, which covers the 2.4, 5.2 and 5.8 GHz for wireless local area network. The impedance bandwidths of two bands are 9.5 and 13.6%, respectively. Also, good radiation performances have been achieved at two bands.