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Under the potential to reconstruct the past climatic and atmospheric conditions from a deep ice core in the coastal Antarctic site (Styx Glacier), an 8.84 m long firn core (73°50.975′ S, 163°41.640′ E; 1623 m a.s.l.) was initially studied to propose a reliable age scale for the local estimation of snow accumulation rate. The seasonal variations of δ18O, methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and non-sea-salt sulfate (nssSO42–) were used for the firn core dating and revealed 25 annual peaks (from 1990 to 2014) with volcanic sulfate signal. The observed declining trend in annual accumulation rate with a mean value of 146 ± 60 kg m–2 a–1 is likely to be linked to the changes of sea-ice extent in the Ross Sea region. Moreover, the temporal variation of the annual mean δ18O, an annual flux of MSA and nssSO42– also likely to be under the influence of ice-covered and open water area. This study suggests a potential to recover past changes in an oceanic environment and will be useful for the interpretation of the long ice core drilled at the same site.
A number of multiple-casualty incidents during 2014 and 2015 brought changes to Korea’s disaster medical assistance system. We report these changes here.
Reports about these incidents, revisions to laws, and the government’s revised medical disaster response guidelines were reviewed.
The number of DMAT (Disaster Medical Assistance Team) staff members was reduced to 4 from 8, and the mobilization method changed. An emergency response manual was created that contains the main content of the DMAT, and there is now a DMAT training program to educate staff. The government created and launched a national 24-hour Disaster Emergency Medical Service Situation Room, and instead of the traditional wireless communications, mobile instant smart phone messaging has been added as a new means of communication. The number of disaster base hospitals has also been doubled.
Although there are still limitations that need to be remedied, the changes to the current emergency medical assistance system are expected to improve the system’s response capacity. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:526–530)
The diatoms are an ecologically important group of algae that have been extensively studied by ecologists and taxonomists. However, the large-scale patterns of diatom distribution and the factors underlying this distribution are largely unknown. The aims of this study were to identify the large-scale spatial patterns of benthic diatom assemblages in Korean streams and rivers, and to assess the importance of numerous environmental factors on diatom distribution. We classified 720 study sites based on diatom flora. Benthic diatoms, water chemistry, altitude, and riparian land cover and use were characterized by multivariate analyses, Monte Carlo permutation tests, and indicator species analysis. In total, we identified 531 diatom taxa. Diatom assemblages were mostly dominated by species of the genera Achnanthes, Navicula, Nitzschia, Cocconeis, Fragilaria (Synedra included), Cymbella, Gomphonema, and Melosira. Cluster analysis partitioned all 720 sites into eight groups based on diatom species composition. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that altitude, land cover and use, current velocity, electrical conductivity, and nutrient levels explained a significant amount of the variation in the composition of assemblages of benthic diatoms. At the national scale, a downstream ecological gradient was apparent, from fast-flowing, mostly oligotrophic highland streams to slow-flowing, mostly eutrophic lowland rivers. Our data suggest that spatial factors explain some of the variation in diatom distribution. The present investigation of the spatial patterns of benthic diatoms, the ecological determinants of diatom occurrence, and the identification of diatom indicator species contributes to development of a program for assessing the biological integrity of lotic ecosystems in Korea.
Anthropogenic land use within watersheds has substantial effects on aquatic habitats and biological communities. From September 2006 to December 2008, we investigated the effects of land use on benthic macroinvertebrate communities by comparing Song Stream and Odae Stream, two adjacent mountain streams in Korea whose watersheds have different land use patterns. Song Stream is significantly disturbed by agricultural activities in the watershed, whereas Odae Stream is relatively undisturbed and is surrounded by a well-conserved forest area. Song Stream had significantly higher levels of all nutrients and sediment-related factors due to the adjacent agricultural area. As a result, Song Stream had markedly lower species community indices, such as taxa richness and abundance. In Song Stream, macroinvertebrate scrapers and predators were most adversely affected, whereas collector-gatherers became a dominant group. Based on correlation and multivariate analyses, total dissolved solids had the strongest negative relationship with macroinvertebrate assemblages, followed by electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, and pH. The proportion of cobble in stream substrate was positively related to the richness and abundance of macroinvertebrates. Our results indicate that disturbances caused by agricultural land use, particularly sand deposition, had significant adverse effects on macroinvertebrate habitats and on the biotic integrity of benthic macroinvertebrate communities.
Licorice extracts are known to exhibit anti-carcinogenic activities. However, chronic licorice consumption can lead to serious side effects due to the presence of considerable quantities of glycyrrhizin, which causes severe hypokalaemia and hypertension. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of a hexane–ethanol extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis (HEGU), which lacks glycyrrhizin, on the metastatic characteristics of DU145 prostate cancer cells. HEGU inhibited basal and epidermal growth factor-induced cell migration, invasion and adhesion in a dose-dependent fashion. HEGU significantly suppressed the secretion and activation of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. The secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 was reduced, but that of TIMP-2 was increased in HEGU-treated cells. HEGU reduced the protein levels of integrin-α2, the intercellular adhesion molecule, and the vascular cell adhesion molecule. An active fraction of HEGU was separated via column chromatography, and the structure of the active component, licoricidin, was identified via 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The treatment of DU145 cells with licoricidin induced a reduction in cell migration and the secretion of MMP-9, TIMP-1, urokinase-type plasminogen activator and vascular endothelial growth factor, as well as in the expression of adhesion molecules. These results indicate that HEGU, which contains licoricidin, is a potent anti-metastatic agent, which can markedly inhibit the metastatic and invasive capacity of malignant prostate cancer cells. The observed reductions in the activation of proteases and the levels of adhesion molecules may constitute a component of the mechanisms by which HEGU inhibits the migration and adhesion of prostate cancer cells.
To investigate the annual rate of tuberculosis (TB) infection among newly employed nurses using both tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G; Cellestis Limited) assay.
A prospective cohort study involving newly employed nurses.
A tertiary care university hospital in South Korea.
All participants (n = 196) were tested with the TST and QFT-G assay at baseline. After 1 year, the TST and QFT-G assay were reperformed for subjects who had negative TST results at baseline and for all subjects, respectively.
The baseline TST and QFT-G assays were positive for 101 subjects (51.5%) and 28 subjects (14.3%), respectively; 22 subjects (11.2%) had positive results of both tests. Although the overall between-test agreement was 54.9% (κ = 0.151 [95% confidence interval, 0.047–0.245]), agreement improved to 78.5% (κ = 0.462 [95% confidence interval, 0.007–0.917]) for subjects who had not received bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination. After 1 year, the TST yielded positive results for 16 (21.3%) of 75 nurses with negative baseline results, and the QFT-G assay yielded positive results for 21 (14.4%) of 146 subjects with negative baseline Results. Collectively, 5 subjects (3.0%) experienced conversion to positive results with both tests, and 32 subjects (18.9%) experienced conversion to positive results with one of the tests. Neither the employing hospital department nor exposure to patients with TB affected test conversion status.
The poor overall agreement between TST and QFT-G results may have been caused by the confounding effect of bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination. The annual risk of TB infection among newly employed nurses was at least 3% on the basis of results of both the TST and QFT-G test. Stricter preventive strategies against TB spread should be implemented in our hospital.
In this study, we have investigated the structure of nickel-cobalt silicide to understand its behavior at high temperature. Nickel-cobalt silicide was formed after two-step RTP at 500°C and 700°C respectively. We could observe by TEM that nickel-cobalt silicide consists of a structure which seems to be a Ni-Co-Si ternary phase. No nickel silicide phases and cobalt silicide phases were detected in nickel-cobalt silicide by XRD. From XPS depth profile, we could confirm that there is a cobalt composition gradient along the silicide.
Silicon nitride–Si2N2O in situ composites were prepared by hot pressing powder mixtures of α–Si3N4, 6 wt% Y2O3, 1 wt% Al2O3, and 0–12 wt% SiO2. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the volume percents of Si2N2O were 0, 13, 31, and 54 for the composites prepared with 0, 4, 8, and 12 wt% SiO2, respectively. XRD results also indicated that both silicon nitride grains and Si2N2O grains were laid down perpendicular to hot pressing direction. As the volume percent of Si2N2O increased, the width and the amount of elongated silicon nitride grains decreased, but the fracture toughness increased. Young's modulus of the in situ composites decreased as the Si2N2O content was increased. The erosion rate decreased as the Si2N2O content was increased, in part, due to both the increased fracture toughness and the reduced grain size. Erosion of the composites occurred primarily due to the grain dislodgment. The sample without Si2N2O experienced micro-chipping due to transgranular fracture.
This study of the indentation behavior of Si has revealed a complex process of mechanical deformation. As loading time increased, Si-XII and Si-III disappeared and only a-Si appeared in (111) samples. As loading time increased, crack was generated and residual stress was removed. At fast loading rate, the deformation behavior appears predominantly elastic. On the contrary, at slow loading rate, catastrophic plastic deformation occurred during loading stage.
We have observed crack behavior which occurred under spherical indentation in crystalline silicon. Method which was used in our research for cross-sectional observation exaggerated generation and propagation of cracks. Our method prepares to observe crack behavior. But it is not profit to observe to phase transformation
We report a new Ni/Pt/Au (20/30/80 nm) metallization scheme to achieve a low ohmic contacts to p-type GaN with a carrier concentration of 9.4 × 1016 cm-3. A Mg-doped GaN layer (0.5 μm) was grown on (0001) sapphire substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). All metal thin films were deposited on the p-GaN layer in an electron-beam evaporation system. Samples were annealed by a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process at a range of temperatures from 300 °C to 850 °C under a flowing Ar atmosphere. A circulartransmission line model (c-TLM) was employed to calculate the specific contact resistance, and current-voltage (I-V) data were measured with HP4155A. The Ni/Pt/Au contacts without the annealing process showed nearly rectifying characteristics. The ohmic contacts were formed on the samples annealed at 500 °C for 30 sec and the I-V data showed a linear behavior. The specific contact resistance was 2.1 × 10-2 Ωcm2. However with increasing the annealing temperature above 600 °C, ohmic contacts were again degraded. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiles were used to investigate the interfacial reactions between the trilayer and GaN. AES results suggested that Pt plays a significant role in forming ohmic contact as an acceptor at the interface. Atomic force microscope (AFM) also showed that the samples with good ohmic contact have very smooth surface.
During the plasma etching of Al-Si-Cu alloy used as a metal interconnection, it is generally reported that the metal pillar (or conical residue) affecting the degradation of device yield is formed by the micromasking effect of copper compound. However, it is stilldisputed with the formation mechanism and composition of the micromasking material. Moreover, the elimination method of the metal pillar is not well known.
According to previous reports, it is argued that the micromasking material consists of Cu agglomerates, A12Cu, or CuC1, and the formation mechanism of the micromasking is due to byproduct during plasma etching or reaction product during metal depositionor etching. However, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive of x-ray (EDX), and high resolution Auger spectroscopy (HRAES), it is newly found that the micromasking consists of three layered structure, that is copper aluminum oxide, A12Cu, and Cu agglomerates. These results are quite different from previous reports. In addition, the removal methods of the metal pillar are suggested, which are high power dry etch process and multilayered metal deposition.
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