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This experimental study investigates the effect of a uniform lateral inflow on the aerodynamic characteristics of flapping wings. Seven designated sideward ratios in the hovering condition and in the presence of a contralateral wing and a body were taken into account as variables in order to secure a better understanding of wing–wing and/or wing–body interactions under the lateral inflow. Our results from the single-wing cases clarified that an inflow running from the wingroot strengthened the leading-edge vortex, thereby augmenting the aerodynamic force/moment. The inflow running in the opposite direction drastically bent the leading-edge vortex to the trailing edge, but the cycle-averaged aerodynamic force/moment was barely changed. This led to substantial imbalances in the force/moment on the two wings. The roll moment on a centre of gravity and the static margin suggested flight instability in the lateral direction, similar to previous studies. We found that the wing–wing interaction was not completely negligible overall under a lateral inflow. A massive downwash induced by the wing on the windward side nearly neutralized the aerodynamic force/moment augmentations on the other wing with lower effective angles of attack. The wing–wing interaction also gave rise to a low-lift high-drag situation during the pitching-up wing rotation, resulting in greater side force derivatives than the theory of flapping counterforce. Further calculations of the roll moment and the static margin with the centre of gravity showed that the wing–wing interaction can improve static stability in the lateral direction. This mainly stemmed from both the attenuation of the lift augmentation and the elimination of the positive roll moment of the flapping-wing system.
According to the Vietnamese Cardiovascular Association, one-fifth of Vietnam's population is suffering from cardiovascular disease (CVD) – now the leading cause of death in the country that accounts for about one-third of total deaths every year. Yet affordable and convenient solutions to monitor and detect CVDs remain limited and not available nation-wide. This study aimed to investigate the usability of a portable dry-electrode electrocardiography (ECG) device, paired with a mobile phone, in supporting ECG service delivery in Vietnam.
An evaluation study was designed to combine a portable dry-electrode ECG device to measure and a mobile phone to receive and record ECG signals. Healthy young college students were invited to participate in the study. Three rounds of ECG measurement were administered for each of the participants. Usability of the device was assessed through the reliability of the measures and feasibility of use during intervention. Standard error of measurement (SEM) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) estimations were used for reliability, while structured questionnaire administered before and after measures was used for feasibility assessments.
A total of 234 participants enrolled in the study. No major difference was found in SEMs between trials one and two (4.96 percent, 90% CI: 4.61 − 5.37) and two and three (4.14 percent, 90% CI: 3.85 − 4.48). A slight improvement was observed in ICC of trials two and three (0.95, 90% CI 0.94 − 0.96) in comparison to one of trials one and two (0.94, 90% CI: 0.92 − 0.95). The SEM and average ICC of all trials were 3.41 (90% CI: 3.17 − 3.69) and 0.96 (90% CI: 0.95 − 0.96) respectively. Forty-five percent of participants thought the device would be suitable for their parents while 69 percent thought the device would benefit their grandparents the most.
High consistency of measures demonstrated that the device is reliable to provide ECG service delivery. The study also showed great potential of device usage in primary health care of Vietnam.
We evaluated the impact of the Epic antimicrobial stewardship module (EAM) on the number of interventions, antimicrobial usage, and clinical outcomes. Use of the EAM allowed us to significantly increase the number of ASP antimicrobial reviews and interventions while maintaining a sustained impact on antimicrobial utilization.
To quantifying the interdependency within the regulatory environment governing human subject research, including Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), federally mandated Medicare coverage analysis and contract negotiations.
Over 8000 IRB, coverage analysis and contract applications initiated between 2013 and 2016 were analyzed using traditional and machine learning analytics for a quality improvement effort to improve the time required to authorize the start of human research studies.
Staffing ratios, study characteristics such as the number of arms, source of funding and number and type of ancillary reviews significantly influenced the timelines. Using key variables, a predictive algorithm identified outliers for a workflow distinct from the standard process. Improved communication between regulatory units, integration of common functions, and education outreach improved the regulatory approval process.
Understanding and improving the interdependencies between IRB, coverage analysis and contract negotiation offices requires a systems approach and might benefit from predictive analytics.
Lithium sulfur (Li–S) batteries have the potential to provide higher energy storage density at lower cost than conventional lithium ion batteries. A key challenge for Li–S batteries is the loss of sulfur to the electrolyte during cycling. This loss can be mitigated by sequestering the sulfur in nanostructured carbon–sulfur composites. The nanoscale characterization of the sulfur distribution within these complex nanostructured electrodes is normally performed by electron microscopy, but sulfur sublimates and redistributes in the high-vacuum conditions of conventional electron microscopes. The resulting sublimation artifacts render characterization of sulfur in conventional electron microscopes problematic and unreliable. Here, we demonstrate two techniques, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning electron microscopy in air (airSEM), that enable the reliable characterization of sulfur across multiple length scales by suppressing sulfur sublimation. We use cryo-TEM and airSEM to examine carbon–sulfur composites synthesized for use as Li–S battery cathodes, noting several cases where the commonly employed sulfur melt infusion method is highly inefficient at infiltrating sulfur into porous carbon hosts.
miRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in various cellular processes. Although there are several algorithms that can predict the potential candidate genes that are regulated by a miRNA, these algorithms require further experimental validation in order to demonstrate genuine targets of miRNAs. Moreover, most algorithms predict hundreds to thousands of putative target genes for each miRNA, and it is difficult to validate all candidates using the whole 3′-untranslated region (UTR) reporter assay. We report a fast, simple and efficient experimental approach to screening miRNA candidate targets using a 3′-UTR linker assay. Critically, the linker has only a short miRNA regulatory element sequence of approximately 22 base pairs in length and can provide a benefit for screening strong miRNA candidates for further validation using the whole 3′-UTR sequence. Our technique will provide a simplified platform for the high-throughput screening of miRNA target gene validation.
We present the Three-mm Ultimate Mopra Milky Way Survey, a new mm-wave molecular-line mapping survey of the southern Galactic Plane, and its first data releases and science results. ThrUMMS maps a 60° × 2° sector of our Galaxy's fourth quadrant, using a combination of fast mapping techniques with the Mopra radio telescope, simultaneously in the J = 1→0 lines of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, and CN near 112 GHz, at 1′.2 and 0.3 km s−1 resolution, with 1.2 K/ch sensitivity for 12CO and 0.7 K/ch for the other transitions. The calibrated data cubes from these observations are made freely available to the community on the ThrUMMS website, http://www.astro.ufl.edu/thrumms, after processing through our pipeline. Here, we summarise the first science results, on global variations in the iso-CO line ratios and on a detailed multiwavelength study of the GMCs near l=333°.
Complex Metallic Alloys (CMAs) are metallic solids of high structural complexity, consisting of large numbers of atoms in their unit cells. Consequences of this structural complexity are manifold and give rise to a variety of exciting physical properties. The impact that such structural complexity may have on the lattice dynamics will be discussed. The surprising dynamical flexibility of Tsai-type clusters with the symmetry breaking central tetrahedron will be addressed for Zn6Sc, while in the Ba-Ge-Ni clathrate system the dynamics of encaged Ba guest atoms in the surrounding Ge-Ni host framework is analysed with respect to the experimentally evidenced strong reduction of lattice thermal conductivity. For both systems experimental results from neutron scattering are analyzed and interpreted on atomistic scale by means of ab initio and molecular dynamics simulations, resulting in a picture with the respective structural building blocks as the origin of the peculiarities in the dynamics.
The breakdown voltage of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN rectifiers as function of a doping concentration and the width of epitaxial layer were successfully modeled in the reach-through case. The breakdown voltage was derived by the impact ionization integral employing the effective impact ionization coefficient and an accurate approximation. Our model shows that the breakdown voltage of wurtzite GaN rectifier was larger than those of zinc-blende GaN rectifier and SiC rectifiers including 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC in the condition that both the thickness and doping concentration of epitaxial layer are identical.
The crystalline quality of bonded Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafers were examined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and Raman spectroscopy. Both techniques detect slight structural defects in the SOI layer. If a pure crystalline silicon dielectric function is assumed for the SOI layer, the spectroscopic ellipsometry data fitting yields an unacceptably large discrepancy between the experimental and modeled data. The best fits for all the samples result in a dielectric function of the SOI layer that consists of a physical mixture of crystalline silicon and about 4 % to 7 % of amorphous silicon. Using such a mixture indicates that there are still some defects in the SOI layer when compared with the high-quality bulk crystalline silicon. This observation is further supported by Raman spectroscopy measurements. The Raman spectra of all SOI samples exhibit a feature at about 495 cm−1 that is not observed in the crystalline silicon spectrum. Features similar to the 495 cm−1 feature have been reported in the literature and attributed to dislocations or faults in the silicon lattice.
A family of one-dimensional oxides was synthesized by solid state techniques and their structures determined by powder X-ray and powder neutron Rietveld refinement. The compounds are structurally related to A4PtO6 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba), which contains infinite chains of alternating face-sharing PtO6 octahedra and AO6, trigonal prisms. The compounds exhibit a variety of magnetic properties. The structures and magnetic properties of some of these one-dimensional oxides are discussed.