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Restaurants are playing an increasingly important role in children’s dietary intake. Interventions to promote healthy ordering in restaurants have primarily targeted adults. Much remains unknown about how to influence ordering for and by children. Using an ecological lens, the present study sought to identify sources of influence on ordering behaviour for and by children in restaurants.
A mixed-methods study was conducted using unobtrusive observations of dining parties with children and post-order interviews. Observational data included: child’s gender, person ordering for the child and server interactions with the dining party. Interview data included: child’s age, restaurant visit frequency, timing of child’s decision making, and factors influencing decision making.
Ten independent, table-service restaurants in San Diego, CA, USA participated.
Complete observational and interview data were obtained from 102 dining parties with 150 children (aged 3–14 years).
Taste preferences, family influences and menus impacted ordering. However, most children knew what they intended to order before arriving at the restaurant, especially if they dined there at least monthly. Furthermore, about one-third of children shared their meals with others and all shared meals were ordered from adult (v. children’s) menus. Parents placed most orders, although parental involvement in ordering was less frequent with older children. Servers interacted frequently with children but generally did not recommend menu items or prompt use of the children’s menu.
Interventions to promote healthy ordering should consider the multiple sources of influence that are operating when ordering for and by children in restaurants.
To compare non-ethnically based supermarkets and Latino grocery stores (tiendas) in a lower-income region with regard to the availability, quality and cost of several healthy v. unhealthy food items.
A cross-sectional study conducted by three independent observers to audit twenty-five grocery stores identified as the main source of groceries for 80 % of Latino families enrolled in a childhood obesity study. Stores were classified as supermarkets and tiendas on the basis of key characteristics.
South San Diego County.
Ten tiendas and fifteen supermarkets.
Tiendas were smaller than supermarkets (five v. twelve aisles, P = 0·003). Availability of fresh produce did not differ by store type; quality differed for one fruit item. Price per unit (pound or piece) was lower in tiendas for most fresh produce. The cost of meeting the US Department of Agriculture's recommended weekly servings of produce based on an 8368 kJ (2000 kcal)/d diet was $US 3·00 lower in tiendas compared with supermarkets (P < 0·001). The cost of 1 gallon of skimmed milk was significantly higher in tiendas ($US 3·29 v. $US 2·69; P = 0·005) and lean (7 % fat) ground beef was available in only one tienda (10 %) compared with ten (67 %) supermarkets (P = 0·01).
Barriers remain in the ability to purchase healthier dairy and meat options in tiendas; the same is not true for produce. These results highlight the potential that tiendas have in improving access to quality, fresh produce within lower-income communities. However, efforts are needed to increase the access and affordability of healthy dairy and meat products.
To determine the nutrition transition stage of female Jordanian college students.
A cross-sectional survey was used to assess eating styles, disordered eating attitudes and behaviours, body esteem and dissatisfaction, and media influence.
Public and private universities in Jordan.
A total of 255 subjects were recruited through a government-initiated youth campaign.
The majority of participants had a normal BMI (70·6 %) with almost all (99·4 %) reporting restrained eating behaviour. Scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) indicated that 45·2 % of these female college students should be screening for eating disorders. Subscales of the Body Esteem Scale (BES) showed that these women did not have substantial body esteem issues and mean scores on the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ-3) indicated that overall these women did not feel the media was dictating the way their body should look. Where Jordanian women did feel pressure from Western media, there was a 6·7-fold increase in the likelihood that they wanted to lose weight. In addition, 48·2 % of the female college students desired to lose weight and 14·4 % desired weight gain, indicating a certain level of body dissatisfaction.
With low levels of overweight and obesity and a propensity towards eating based on external hunger cues, college-aged Jordanian women may be less advanced in their development through the nutrition transition than the general population of women. However, high levels of restrained eating and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours indicate the need for an intervention to address healthy weight-loss strategies, assess eating disorders and help maintain healthy body esteem.
To identify the impact of body mass index (BMI) and Western advertising and media on the stage of the nutrition transition among Jordanian women, and to evaluate their impact on eating styles and body image.
A randomised cross-sectional survey that included a variety of culturally measured Likert-type scales and body size images. In addition, BMI was calculated based on measured height and weight.
In the homes of the participants. The data were collected by female interviewers who worked for the Jordan Department of Statistics.
The sample was based on a random and representative selection of 800 mostly urban Jordanian women. A pre-test sample of 100 women was also used to validate the instruments.
Women tended to agree that they ate based on emotional cues. They had high levels of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours and 42.1% were considered restrained eaters. However, these women also had higher than expected body esteem levels and desired a healthy body size. As expected, being obese was associated with a desire to lose weight, being a restrained and emotional eater, and having more disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. Similarly, Western advertising and media were associated with restrained and emotional eating, desired weight loss, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours.
There is a need to develop health education materials that explain the influence of obesity on health and the negative psychological and physical consequences of restrained and emotional eating, building on the current cultural preferences of healthy body size. Further implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
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