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The growing tension between mainland China and Taiwan has a cultural aspect closely related to national identity. We focus on recent history curriculum changes in the mainland and in Taiwan and find that education authorities on both sides have implemented master narratives for content selection in and organization of history textbooks. In mainland China, the master narrative of pluralist unity constructs a geographically consistent Chinese nation throughout history, which bolsters the state's current claim to a territorial integrity including Taiwan. In Taiwan, the master narrative of multiculturalism becomes the essence of Taiwanese identity, and weakens Sinocentrism in Taiwanese official historiography.
Parenting practices and relationships with peers are crucial aspects of youth socialization. Although theoretically expected reciprocal associations between changes in maladaptive parenting and adolescent peer victimization exist, there is a lack of studies that examine this link and address the mediating mechanisms at the within-person level. This longitudinal study examined reciprocal relations between peer victimization and two types of maladaptive parenting including harsh punishment and psychological control, and the potential mediating roles of internalizing and externalizing problems within these relations, by disentangling between- and within-person effects. A total of 4,731 Chinese early adolescents (44.9% girls; Mage = 10.91 years, SD = 0.72) participated in a four-wave longitudinal study with 6-month intervals. The results of random intercept cross-lagged panel modeling showed: (a) harsh punishment did not directly predict peer victimization, and vice versa; (b) psychological control directly predicted peer victimization, and vice versa; (c) psychological control indirectly predicted peer victimization via internalizing problems, and peer victimization also indirectly predicted psychological control via internalizing problems. These findings provide evidence of a bidirectional spillover effect between psychological control and peer victimization at the within-person level, suggesting Chinese early adolescents may become caught in a vicious cycle directly or indirectly via their internalizing problems.
Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a rare slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized pathologically by the presence of eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions. NIID is a heterogeneous disease with diverse clinical manifestations, making diagnosis difficult. Here, we analyzed the clinical, pathological, and radiological features of Chinese NIID patients to improve our understanding of NIID.
A total of 17 patients with sporadic NIID were recruited from the Ruijin Hospital Database between 2014 and 2021. Clinical patient information and brain MRI data were collected. All of the patients underwent standard skin biopsy procedures.
The average age of onset for symptoms was 60.18 years, and the average duration of illness was 4.06 years. All patients were diagnosed with NIID due to the presence of intranuclear inclusions confirmed by skin biopsy. Tremor was the most common initial symptom. The average ages at onset and at diagnosis were both lower in patients with tremor than in patients without tremor. NIID may be a systemic disease that affects multiple organs, for one patient had a history of chronic renal insufficiency for more than 10 years. In addition to high-intensity U-fibers signals on diffusion-weighted imaging, there were several other MRI findings, such as focal leukoencephalopathy and cortical swelling. Encephalitic episodes followed by reversible leukoencephalopathy was another important imaging feature of NIID.
The clinical manifestations of NIID are highly variable. Tremor may be the most common initial symptom in certain cohorts. Encephalitic episodes followed by reversible asymmetric leukoencephalopathy may also indicate this disease.
The effects of early thiamine use on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between early thiamine administration and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with AKI. The data of critically ill patients with AKI within 48 h after ICU admission were extracted from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC III) database. PSM was used to match patients early receiving thiamine treatment to those not early receiving thiamine treatment. The association between early thiamine use and in-hospital mortality due to AKI was determined using a logistic regression model. A total of 15 066 AKI patients were eligible for study inclusion. After propensity score matching (PSM), 734 pairs of patients who did and did not receive thiamine treatment in the early stage were established. Early thiamine use was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (OR 0·65; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·87; P < 0·001) and 90-d mortality (OR 0·58; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·74; P < 0·001), and it was also associated with the recovery of renal function (OR 1·26; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·36; P < 0·001). In the subgroup analysis, early thiamine administration was associated with lower in-hospital mortality in patients with stages 1 to 2 AKI. Early thiamine use was associated with improved short-term survival in critically ill patients with AKI. It was possible beneficial role in patients with stages 1 to 2 AKI according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria.
With the popularization of carbon and nitrogen stable-isotope analysis methods used on archaeological samples from Xinjiang, the ancient paleodiet there has been revealed. However, research about isotopic analysis combined with environmental factors is rare, especially in such a variable and complex climate as that of the Tianshan region. We systematically analyzed the δ13C and δ15N results from animals and humans for dietary reconstruction of nomadic pastoralists from the Tianshan region during 3900–1200 cal BP. The δ13C and δ15N values for animals (sheep/goat, horse and cattle; n = 57) have a wide range from –20.8‰ to –14.7‰ for δ13C (–19.2 ± 1.0‰) and 3.2‰ to 9.9‰ for δ15N (7.0 ± 1.2‰). The δ13C and δ15N values from humans range from –19.6 to –12.3‰ (–16.0 ± 1.5‰) and 7.1 to 16.7‰ (–13.6 ± 1.5‰), respectively. The animal δ15N results indicate that the dry environment in the Tianshan region may result in elevated δ15N values. Synthesizing animal and human isotope results suggests that the inhabitants engaged in mobile herding economies subsidized with crops and wild animal meat from the Tianshan Mountains. In conclusion, we found that the regional environment closely relates to crop types, and temporal climate change has an effect on human dietary structure. Therefore, climate condition cannot be ignored when studying human paleodiet.
The aim of this study is to describe the risk factors of injured children’s posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in China and provide the scientific data for PTSD prevention and control in children.
Electronic databases, including Medline, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), were searched for articles published on or before October 30, 2018, searching for the words, “PTSD,” “child”/“children,” “injury”/“injuries,” and “China”/“Chinese.” Forty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria and were meta-analyzed using random-effect models.
The total sample size in our meta-analysis was 65 298, and there were 13 402 children diagnosed with PTSD. The prevalence of PTSD after suffering from injury was 20.52% (95% CI = 17%–23%). PTSD occurrence was higher in girls than boys (24.61% vs 19.36%, P < 0.001). The PTSD rate for students was 51.82%, 37.12%, and 14.02% in senior, junior high school children, and primary school student, respectively. PTSD prevalence was 58.93% in rural children and higher than the urban children (57.36%). The prevalence of PTSD in ethnic minority children was significantly higher than that of Han Chinese children (35.38% vs 13.50%).
PTSD in injured children is significantly higher in girls, senior high school children, in rural areas, and in ethnic minority children. PTSD prevention and control should be focused on these 4 subgroups.
In this paper, a 3 dB H-plane substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) power divider/combiner with improved isolation is reported. By adding two isolated ports into the Y-junction, it will perform like a multi-port coupler, so that the isolation between its dividing ports can be effectively improved as the newly-added ports are properly matched. To verify the availability and effectiveness of this concept, two prototypes, one is terminated by coaxial terminations and the other is loaded with lumped resistors, are developed. Their measured results are separately in good agreement with their corresponding simulations. Meanwhile, isolations better than 16 dB with fractional bandwidth (FBW) of 35 and 25% are achieved, respectively, as well as low phase and amplitude imbalances. Compared with some reported similar SIW power dividers, the proposed ones exhibit wider FBW with similar isolation, insertion loss, phase, and amplitude balance performance.
Objectives: Mental arithmetic is essential to daily life. Researchers have explored the mechanisms that underlie mental arithmetic. Whether mental arithmetic fact retrieval is dependent on surface modality or knowledge format is still highly debated. Chinese individuals typically use a procedure strategy for addition; and they typically use a rote verbal strategy for multiplication. This provides a way to examine the effect of surface modality on different arithmetic operations. Methods: We used a series of neuropsychological tests (i.e., general cognitive, language processing, numerical processing, addition, and multiplication in visual and auditory conditions) for a patient who had experienced a left frontotemporal stroke. Results: The patient had language production impairment; but preserved verbal processing concerning basic numerical abilities. Moreover, the patient had preserved multiplication in the auditory presentation rather than in the visual presentation. The patient suffered from impairments in an addition task, regardless of visual or auditory presentation. Conclusions: The findings suggest that mental multiplication could be characterized as a form of modality-dependent processing, which was accessed through auditory input. The learning strategy of multiplication table recitation could shape the verbal memory of multiplication leading to persistence of the auditory module. (JINS, 2017, 23, 692–699)
Previous studies have supported the theory that there is a positive association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in Western people. Diet plays an important role in determining serum ferritin concentration. Asian dietary patterns are different from Western dietary patterns, implying that there may be a difference in the association of ferritin with carotid atherosclerosis between Asian and Western people. However, few studies focus on the association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis among Asians. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in an Asian adult population. A cross-sectional assessment was performed in 8302 adults in Tianjin, China. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques were assessed using ultrasonography, and serum ferritin was measured using the protein chip-chemiluminescence method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of serum ferritin concentration and carotid atherosclerosis. In the present study, the overall prevalence of IMT and carotid plaques in participants is 29·2 and 22·7 %, respectively. In women, after adjustments for potentially confounding factors, the OR of IMT and carotid plaques by increasing serum ferritin quartiles were 1·00, 1·39 (95 % CI 0·98–1·99), 1·39 (95 % CI 0·99–1·97), 1·81 (95 % CI 1·30–2·55) (Pfor trend<0·001) and 1·00, 1·24 (95 % CI 0·89–1·73), 1·18 (95 % CI 0·85–1·65), 1·59 (95 % CI 1·15–2·20) (Pfor trend<0·01), respectively. However, no association was found between serum ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in men. The study demonstrated that increased serum ferritin levels are independently associated with IMT and carotid plaques in Asian women but not in Asian men.
Growth of unexpected phases from a composite target of BiFeO3:BiMnO3 and/or BiFeO3:BiCrO3 has been explored using pulsed laser deposition. The Bi2FeMnO6 tetragonal phase can be grown directly on SrTiO3 (STO) substrate, while two phases (S1 and S2) were found to grow on LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates with narrow growth windows. However, introducing a thin CeO2 buffer layer effectively broadens the growth window for the pure S1 phase, regardless of the substrate. Moreover, we discovered two new phases (X1 and X2) when growing on STO substrates using a BiFeO3:BiCrO3 target. Pure X2 phase can be obtained on CeO2-buffered STO and LAO substrates. This work demonstrates that some unexpected phases can be stabilized in a thin film form by using composite perovskite BiRO3 (R = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) targets. Furthermore, it also indicates that CeO2 can serve as a general template for the growth of bismuth compounds with potential room-temperature multiferroicity.
InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition with various growth temperatures for p-GaN layer. The structural and optoelectronic properties of as-grown multiple quantum wells (MQWs) and LEDs are studied in detail. It reveals that with the growth of p-GaN layer, the crystalline qualities of the as-grown n-GaN layer are improved significantly, while the optoelectronic properties of MQWs are decreased dramatically. Furthermore, the mechanisms for the effect of p-GaN growth temperature on the properties of InGaN/GaN green LEDs are proposed. It is demonstrated that the p-GaN layer grown at a suitable temperature of 950 °C shows the highest optoelectronic properties due to the fact that this suitable temperature for p-layer growth is good for the Mg doping and would not cause the fluctuation of indium in the MQWs, and eventually benefits to the effective recombination of carriers. This work provides an optimized p-GaN layer growth temperature for realizing highly efficient InGaN/GaN green LED devices.
The properties of a series of phase measurement techniques, including interferometry, the Hartmann–Shack wavefront sensor, the knife-edge technique, and coherent diffraction imaging, are summarized and their performance in high power laser applications is compared. The advantages, disadvantages, and application ranges of each technique are discussed.
Self-separated Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films were processed by a hydrothermal deposition and a rapid thermal separation method, followed by a sol–gel filling and sintering process. The films possess excellent piezoelectric and electromechanical properties close to those of bulk material. The maximum remnant polarization is over 30 μC/cm2 and the electromechanical coupling factor (kt) reaches as high as 0.52. The unique microstructure characteristics of the PZT films, such as their highly dense structure, columnar grains, well-connected grain boundaries, and well-dispersed nanopores, could all contribute to the enhanced piezoelectric and electromechanical properties.
The decomposition mechanism of block copolymer templates inside as-synthesized mesostructured solids has been systematically studied using solid-state 1H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and high-vacuum Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. It is shown that there exists hydrogen-bonding interaction between silanols and block copolymers at the inorganic–organic interface in the self-assembled as-synthesized mesostructured solids, which plays an important role in protecting the surfactants against decomposition during the high-temperature hydrothermal treatment process. Increasing silanol concentration can enhance the hydrogen-bonding interaction and thus shows better “protection” effect. Moreover, the thermal decomposition of the block copolymer in as-synthesized mesostructured solids in air commences at higher temperatures compared with that in acidic solution or in air, providing further evidence in support of the silanol protection mechanism.
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