Numerical simulations of two-dimensional (2D) turbulent thermal convection for inhomogeneous boundary condition are investigated using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). This study mainly appraises the temporal evolution and the scaling behavior of global quantities and of small-scale turbulence properties. The research results show that the flow is dominated by large-scale structures in the turbulence regime. Mushroom plumes emerge at both ends of each heat source, and smaller plumes increasingly rise. It is found that the gradient of root mean-square (rms) vertical velocities and the gradient of the rms temperature in the bottom boundary layer decreases with time evolution. It is further observed that the temporal evolution of the Kolmogorov scale, the kinetic-energy dissipation rates and thermal dissipation rates agree well with the theoretical predictions. It is also observed that there is a range of linear scaling in the 2nd-order structure functions of the velocity and temperature fluctuations and mixed velocity-temperature structure function.