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β-glucan has been reported for its health benefits on blood lipids in hypercholesterolemic individuals for years. However, people has paid little attention to the effects in population with mildly hypercholesterolemic as well as the various delivering matrices of β-glucan. Our objective was to perform a meta-analysis to analyze the effects of β-glucan with different delivering matrices in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals. After conducting a comprehensive search in Web of science, Pubmed, Scopus and Cochrane library, a total of 21 randomized controlled trials involving 1120 participants were identified to measure the pooled effect. The overall results indicated consuming in a doses of ≥3g/d of β-glucan for at least 3 weeks could significantly reduce TC (-0.27mmol/L, 95%CI: -0.33, -0.21, P<0.001) and LDL-c (-0.26mmol/L, 95%CI: -0.32, -0.20, P<0.001) compared with control group in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals, while no significant difference was observed in TG (-0.03mmol/L, 95%CI: -0.11, 0.06, P=0.521) and HDL-c (0.01mmol/L, 95%CI: -0.03, 0.04, P=0.777). There was evidence for modest unexplained heterogeneity in the meta-analysis. In conclusion, β-glucan can significantly reduce risk factors like TC and LDL-c for CVD in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals, furthermore, it appears that the effects of food matrices with both ‘solid-products’ and ‘liquid-products’ where β-glucan was incorporated into ranked as the best way to exert its beneficial properties, while ‘liquid’ and ‘solid’ products were ranked as the second, third position respectively.
Following the trends established in psychology and emerging in L2 research, we explain our support for an Open Science approach in this paper (i.e., developing, analyzing and sharing datasets) as a way to answer controversial and complex questions in applied linguistics. We illustrate this with a focus on a frequently debated question, what underlies individual differences in the dynamic system of post-pubertal L2 speech learning? We provide a detailed description of our dataset which consists of spontaneous speech samples, elicited from 110 late L2 speakers in the UK with diverse linguistic, experiential and sociopsychological backgrounds, rated by ten L1 English listeners for comprehensibility and nativelikeness. We explain how we examined the source of individual differences by linking different levels of L2 speech performance to a range of learner-extrinsic and intrinsic variables related to first language backgrounds, age, experience, motivation, awareness, and attitudes using a series of factor and Bayesian mixed-effects ordinal regression analyses. We conclude with a range of suggestions for the fields of applied linguistics and SLA, including the use of Bayesian methods in analyzing multivariate, multifactorial data of this kind, and advocating for publicly available datasets. In keeping with recommendations for increasing openness of the field, we invite readers to rethink and redo our analyses and interpretations from multiple angles by making our dataset and coding publicly available as part of our 40th anniversary ARAL article.
Wireless power transfer (WPT) has attracted attention from academia and industry in recent years. WPT has natural electrical isolation between primary and secondary side, which ensures safe charging in an underwater environment. This breakthrough technology greatly facilitates the deep-sea power transmission. However, at the current stage the transferred power and energy efficiency level are not up to that of the WPT system in the air. The major concerns include the attenuation is seawater, extreme temperature and pressure conditions, disturbance of ocean currents, and bio-security. Three questions are answered in this paper: first, the expressions of eddy current loss and attenuation of electromagnetic wave in seawater are unified, and the influence of seawater as transmission medium on the WPT system is discussed. Second, the evolution of electromagnetic coupling structure suitable for underwater applications is studied. Third, the loss and heating effects of an underwater WPT system and the corresponding bio-fouling phenomenon are investigated. The questions above were addressed through analysis of electrical properties, coupler structures, and bio-fouling effects of the underwater WPT system. This paper will facilitate the study and research on underwater WPT applications.
This mini review summarizes recent advances in experimental thermodynamics of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). Taking advantage of the development in mechanochemistry, near-room temperature solution calorimetry, and low-temperature heat capacity measurements, the energetic landscape, entropy trends, and Gibbs free energy evolutions of MOFs with true polymorphism [Zn(MeIm)2, Zn(EtIm)2, and Zn(CF3Im)2] as framework topology varies were thoroughly explored by integrated calorimetric and computational methodologies. In addition, the formation enthalpies of MOFs with ultrahigh porosity (MOF-177 and UMCM-1) and the simplest structure (metal formates) have been determined. The studies summarized below highlight the complex interplays among interrelated compositional, chemical, and topological (structural) factors in the determination of the thermodynamic parameters of MOFs.
This article overviews the ultrasonic welding process, a solid-state joining method, using the example of welding of a magnesium alloy as well as the joining of magnesium alloys in general. In situ high-speed imaging and infrared thermography were utilized to study interfacial relative motion and heat generation during ultrasonic spot welding of AZ31B magnesium (Mg) alloys. A postweld ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation was performed to study the evolution of local bond formation at the faying interface (contact surface of the joint between the top and bottom Mg sheets) at different stages of the welding process. Two distinct stages were observed as the welding process progresses. In the early stage, localized reciprocating sliding occurred at the contact faying interface between the two Mg sheets, resulting in localized rapid temperature rise from the localized frictional heating. Microscale (submillimeter) bonded regions at the Mg–Mg faying surface started to form, but the overall joint strength was low. The early-stage localized bonds were broken during the subsequent vibrations. In the later stage, no relative motion occurred at any points of the faying interface. Localized bonded regions coalesced into a macroscale joint that was strong enough to prevent the Mg–Mg interface from further breakage and sliding. With increasing welding time, the bonded area continued to increase.
The current study examines how second language (L2) users differentially assess the comprehensibility (i.e., ease of understanding) of foreign-accented speech according to a range of background variables, including first language (L1) profiles, L2 proficiency, age, experience, familiarity, and metacognition. A total of 110 L2 listeners first evaluated the global comprehensibility of 50 spontaneous speech samples produced by low-, mid-, and high-proficiency Japanese speakers of English. The listeners were categorized into two subgroups according to a cluster analysis of their rating scores: lenient and strict. Results showed that while the lenient listeners appeared to rely equally on many linguistic areas of speech during their judgments, the strict listeners were strongly attuned to phonological accuracy. Analysis of the background questionnaire data revealed that more lenient listeners likely had higher levels of awareness of the importance of comprehensibility for communication (metacognition); regularly used L2 English in professional settings (experience); and had L1s more linguistically close to the target speech samples, Japanese-accented English (L1-L2 distance).
Nitrogen (N) inputs have been found to exert strong influence on leaf stoichiometry in natural ecosystems, but there are few studies investigating the effects of N in agroecosystems. Using a 5-yr fertilization experiment in rice fields, we examined the effects of N inputs on leaf stoichiometry of one crop, rice (Oryza sativa L.), and its four common weeds, barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.], Monochoria korsakowii Regel and Mack, alligatorweed [Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.], and Japanese mazus [Mazus pumilus (Burm. f.) Steenis], and further evaluated whether and how straw return mediates these effects. We found that rice and weed leaf nitrogen:phosphorus:potassium (N:P:K) stoichiometry exhibited divergent responses to N fertilizer. Weed leaf N:P:K stoichiometry was not sensitive to low (120 kg N ha−1) and regular (240 kg N ha−1) N inputs, but rice plants were, with significantly increased leaf N concentration and N:P and N:K ratios. The opposite trend was found for high N inputs (360 kg N ha−1). Rice leaf N concentration [N] did not increase further, and N:P ratios even decreased, whereas E. crus-galli and M. korsakowii had significantly increased [N] and N-related stoichiometry. We also found that the positive effects of regular N inputs on rice leaf N:P and N:K ratios were significantly dampened by straw return, but the positive effects on N:P ratios in M. pumilus leaves were enhanced by straw return. Compared with weeds, rice leaves contained low elemental concentrations across fertilization levels at grain-filling stages. These results indicate that rice has a lower N requirement than weeds at grain-filling stages, and the N supply should be managed at a relative low level to reduce the nutrient acquisition and competitive abilities of weeds. From a stoichiometric perspective, this study highlights the importance of N management in combination with straw return in controlling weeds and increasing the nutrient-use efficiency of crops.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this exploratory study is to evaluate the relationship between the individual genetic variants in COMTrs4680 and DRDrs1076560 and relevant alcohol use behaviors (i.e. alcohol consumption and reward processing behaviors) in non-dependent drinkers within experimentally controlled IV-ASA CAIS sessions. The overall goal of this study is to begin gathering data on the influence of individual genetic variants on alcohol consumption and other drinking-related behaviors. This will aid in the creation of a polygenic model of risk for AUD which will provide more insight into how the mesolimbic pathway is affected by alcohol use. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Study population: The sample included male and female non-dependent drinkers (N=149). Genotypes for functional polymorphisms in COMT (rs4680) and DRD2 (rs1076560) genes were determined for all subjects from blood samples obtained during screening. Alcohol consumption was assessed using the 90-day Timeline Followback Interviews (TLFB). Study population demographics: Self-reported gender (53.5% identified as male); Self-reported race (61.2% identified as white); Age ranged from 21-46 years old, with 22 years being the mode. Experiment: Free access (open-bar) intravenous alcohol self-administration (IV-ASA) using the computer-assisted alcohol infusion system (CAIS) paradigm; Subjects had the choice of pressing a button ad libitum for IV alcohol infusions during the session, neurobehavioral questionnaires were collected throughout the 2.5-hr alcohol infusion session. Primary outcome measures included: Total Rewards, Peak breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) achieved, and Total Ethanol consumed. Statistical Analyses: Conducted using SPSS IBM Statistics Versions 1.0.0-2482; non-dependent drinkers were organized into two groups based on their genotypes, minor allele carriers and major allele homozygotes. Outcome measures were compared between genotype groups using analysis of variance or non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test as appropriate. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: -We expect the genetic makeup of the sample to be reflective of larger genome samples that are publically available (e.g. e!Ensembl) - Initial analysis for COMTrs4680 did not reveal significant effects on IV-ASA measures. Specifically, the majo DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) affects millions of men and women globally. The heterogeneity within AUD individuals has made it difficult to identify biological and/or psychological factors that could be targeted for the development of treatments. By using the human laboratory model of free access IV-ASA, this study evaluated the relationship between dopaminergic genetic variants, COMTrs4680 and DRDrs1076560, and alcohol consumption in non-dependent drinkers within a controlled experimental environment. This study will begin to evaluate genetic and behavioral data that can be used to create a polygenic model of risk for AUD, which will provide more insight as to how the mesolimbic reward pathway is affected by alcohol use and contributes to risk for AUD.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene variation is associated with reward-related phenotypes including alcohol response. There is also evidence for a potential moderating role for mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene variation on the relationship between DAT1 variation and alcohol response measures. We aimed at studying the interaction between the DAT1 VNTR and OPRM1 A118G polymorphisms on alcohol consumption and subjective responses among non-dependent drinkers. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We employed a progressive ratio (PR) paradigm of intravenous alcohol self-administration (IV-ASA) using the Computer-Assisted Infusion System (CAIS) to assess the motivation for alcohol seeking and consumption in a sample of nondependent drinkers. We used the Drug Effects Questionnaire (DEQ) and Biphasic Alcohol Effects Questionnaire (BAES) to assess subjective response. IV-ASA measures included average breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and total ethanol infused. Peripheral blood samples were collected for genotyping. Ethics approval was obtained from the NIH Addictions Institutional Review Board. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Fifty participants completed the PR IV-ASA session after informed consent. There were significant interactions between the DAT1 and OPRM1 genotypes in subjective effects of alcohol. Simple main effects analysis showed that DAT1 10a allele carriers that were also OPRM1 G allele carriers had significantly higher scores for several measures: “feel the drug effects” (F (1,46)=6.573, P = 0.014), “feel intoxicated”(F(1,46)=8.613, P = 0.005) and “feeling high” (F(1,46)=10.889, P = 0.002) in DEQ and higher sedation (F(1,46)=4.575, P = 0.038) in BAES. The genotypes statistically significantly predicted average breath alcohol (F (1,61) =3.295, p=0.044) and total ethanol infused(F(1,61)=3.632, p=0.032. DAT1 VNTR and OPRM1 A118G polymorphisms taken together accounted for 6.9 and 7.8% of variations in average breath alcohol and total ethanol infused respectively. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Polymorphic variations in DAT1 and OPRM1 interact with each other in determining subjective effects of alcohol in intravenous alcohol infusion assessing motivation for alcohol seeking and consumption in nondependent drinkers. These epistatic interactions in subjective effects of alcohol are salient in the context of predicting and understanding neurobiological effects of alcohol and thereby the therapeutic responses in treating alcohol use disorders.
This study investigated the effect of pre-exercise α-lactalbumin ingestion on subsequent endurance exercise performance, muscle pain and mood states. In a two-stage cross-over counterbalance design, eleven male endurance runners (age: 31 (se 2) years, height: 169·5 (se 4·4) cm, weight: 63·6 (se 5·1) kg, V̇O2max: 58·8 (se 6·3) ml/kg per min) consumed two solutions (carbohydrate+α-lactalbumin, CA; carbohydrate+whey protein isolate, CW) 2 h before a self-paced 21-km run. Creatine kinase, IL-6, muscle pain, pressure pain threshold (PPT) and mood states were assessed 2 h before exercise, immediately before exercise (Pre-ex0) and immediately after exercise (Post-ex0). No difference was found in 21-km running performance between two trials (CA v. CW: 115·85 (se 5·20) v. 118·85 (se 5·51) min, P=0·48). Compared with CW, CA led to higher PPT at Pre-ex0 (41·77 (se 2·27) v. 35·56 (se 2·10) N/cm2, P<0·01) and Post-ex0 (38·76 (se 3·23) v. 35·30 (se 3·55) N/cm2, P=0·047). Compared with CW, CA reduced the feeling of fatigue at Post-ex0 (P<0·01); CA also reduced salivary cortisol levels at Post-ex0 (0·72 (se 0·07) v. 0·83 (se 0·13) ng/ml, P<0·01). In conclusion, the ingestion of α-lactalbumin did not improve the 21-km time-trial performance. However, compared with the pre-exercise ingestion of whey protein, that of α-lactalbumin led to superior results during similar levels of endurance exercise: it elevated PPT and reduced the feeling of fatigue and the cortisol levels.
We hypothesize that the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) may play a role in disturbing the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on the striatal connectivity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
We performed a longitudinal observation by combining resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and biochemical analyses to identify the abnormal striatal connectivity in MDD patients, and to evaluate the effect of TNF-α level on these abnormal connectivities during SSRI treatment. Eighty-five rs-fMRI scans were collected from 25 MDD patients and 35 healthy controls, and the scans were repeated for all the patients before and after a 6-week SSRI treatment. Whole-brain voxel-wise functional connectivity (FC) was calculated by correlating the rs-fMRI time courses between each voxel and the striatal seeds (i.e. spherical regions placed at the striatums). The level of TNF-α in serum was evaluated by Milliplex assay. Factorial analysis was performed to assess the interaction effects of ‘TNF-α × treatment’ in the regions with between-group FC difference.
Compared with controls, MDD patients showed significantly higher striatal FC in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and bilateral middle/superior temporal cortices before SSRI treatment (p < 0.001, uncorrected). Moreover, a significant interaction effect of ‘TNF-α × treatment’ was found in MPFC-striatum FC in MDD patients (p = 0.002), and the significance remained after adjusted for age, gender, head motion, and episode of disease.
These findings provide evidence that treatment-related brain connectivity change is dependent on the TNF-α level in MDD patients, and the MPFC-striatum connectivities possibly serve as an important target in the brain.
The current study examines the role of cognitive and perceptual individual differences (i.e., aptitude) in second language (L2) pronunciation learning, when L2 learners’ varied experience background is controlled for. A total of 48 Chinese learners of English in the UK were assessed for their sensitivity to segmental and suprasegmental aspects of speech on explicit and implicit modes via behavioural (language/music aptitude tests) and neurophysiological (electroencephalography) measures. Subsequently, the participants’ aptitude profiles were compared to the segmental and suprasegmental dimensions of their L2 pronunciation proficiency analyzed through rater judgements and acoustic measurements. According to the results, the participants’ segmental attainment was associated not only with explicit aptitude (phonemic coding), but also with implicit aptitude (enhanced neural encoding of spectral peaks). Whereas the participants’ suprasegmental attainment was linked to explicit aptitude (rhythmic imagery) to some degree, it was primarily influenced by the quality and quantity of their most recent L2 learning experience.
The current study longitudinally examined the influence of aptitude on second language (L2) pronunciation development when 40 first-year Japanese university students engaged in practice activities inside and outside English-as-a-Foreign-Language classrooms over one academic year. Spontaneous speech samples were elicited at the beginning, middle, and end points of the project, analyzed for global, segmental, syllabic, prosodic, and temporal aspects of L2 pronunciation, and linked to their aptitude and experience profiles. Results indicated that the participants generally enhanced the global comprehensibility of their speech (through reducing vowel insertion errors in complex syllables) as a function of increased classroom experience during their first semester, and explicit learning aptitude (associative memory, phonemic coding) appeared to help certain learners further enhance their pronunciation proficiency through the development of fluency and prosody. In the second semester, incidental learning ability (sound sequence recognition) was shown to be a significant predictor of the extent to which certain learners continued to improve and ultimately attain advanced-level L2 comprehensibility, largely thanks to improved segmental accuracy.
Porous carbon derived from biomass materials with enrich, low cost, clean, and renewable merits, exhibits various physical and chemical properties. So, it is of great significance to rationally utilize biomass materials for producing porous carbon with low cost to reduce overusing fossil fuel and environmental pollution. In this report, porous carbon has been fabricated using fruits shells of the Paulownia tomentosa by a facile method of KOH-activation. The as-obtained porous carbon containing a larger number of micropores and slight mesopores possesses a high specific surface area (1914.4 m2/g) and well hierarchical porosity. As the anode for sodium ion batteries, the porous carbon sample displays superior cycling stability and rate capability, delivering a reversible specific capacity of 179 mA h/g at 50 mA/g after 100 cycles and a discharge specific capacity of 100 mA h/g at 1 A/g.
We present the design and experiment of a broadband optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) which provides high conversion efficiency and good beam quality at 808 nm wavelength. Using a three-dimensional spatial and temporal numerical model, several design considerations necessary to achieve high conversion efficiency, good beam quality and good output stability are discussed. To improve the conversion efficiency and broaden the amplified signal bandwidth simultaneously, the nonlinear crystal length and OPCPA parameters are analyzed and optimized with the concept of dissipating amplified idler between optical parametric amplification (OPA) of two crystals configuration. In the experiment, an amplifier consisting of two OPCPA stages of ‘L’ type configuration was demonstrated by using the optimized parameters. An amplified signal energy of 160 mJ was achieved with a total pump-to-signal efficiency of 35% (43% efficiency for the OPCPA stage 2). The output bandwidth of signal pulse reached 80 nm and the signal pulse was compressed to 24 fs. The energy stability reached 1.67% RMS at 3% pump energy variation. The optimized OPCPA amplifier operates at a repetition rate of 1 Hz and is used as a front-end injection for the main amplifier of SG-II 5PW laser facility.
Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) represents a significant economic burden to the healthcare system. Catheter ablation is a commonly adopted treatments for PAF, and cryoballoon ablation (CBA) has been recently proven to be as effective as radiofrequency ablation (RFA). This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of CBA versus RFA in patients with drug-refractory PAF in China.
A Markov model was developed to study the effects and the costs of CBA versus RFA. Cost and probability inputs data were obtained mainly from a real-world study of 85 CBA and 284 RFA patients treated in a tertiary hospital between July 2014 and July 2016. Propensity score matching was used to overcome retrospective bias, resulting in including 75 patients in each group. Input data gaps were closed with literature review and advisory board. A simulation was carried out for 14 cycles/years, and a discount rate of 3 percent was used. Then, a probabilistic sensitivity analysis was carried out with Monte Carlo approach.
In the base case scenario, the cumulative costs incurred by the CBA and RFA groups were CNY 132,222 (USD 20,767) and CNY 147,304 (USD 23,136), respectively. Over the 14-year period, the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained by the CBA group was 7.85 versus 7.71 in the RFA group. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for CBA versus RFA was thus CNY 107,729 (USD 16,920)/QALY. Model results were most sensitive to the cost incurred during the first hospitalization, recurrence rate, and relative utility weights. The probability of CBA being cost-effective for willingness to pay thresholds of per capita GDP in China was estimated to be 99 percent.
Compared with RFA, CBA is a cost-saving treatment providing increased QALYs. It represents good value for money for patients with drug-refractory PAF in China. However, further evidence needs to be generated from larger-scale studies in China.
Spirituality is what gives people meaning and purpose in life, and it has been recognized as a critical factor in patients’ well-being, particularly at the ends of their lives. Studies have demonstrated relationships between spirituality and patient-reported outcomes such as quality of life and mental health. Although a number of studies have suggested that spiritual belief can be associated with mortality, the results are inconsistent. We aimed to determine whether spirituality was related to survival in advanced cancer inpatients in Korea.
For this multicenter study, we recruited adult advanced cancer inpatients who had been admitted to seven palliative care units with estimated survival of <3 months. We measured spirituality at admission using the Korean version of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-sp), which comprises two subscales: meaning/peace and faith. We calculated a Kaplan-Meier curve for spirituality, dichotomized at the predefined cutoffs and medians for the total scale and each of the two subscales, and performed univariate regression with a Cox proportional hazard model.
We enrolled a total of 204 adults (mean age: 64.5 ± 13.0; 48.5% female) in the study. The most common primary cancer diagnoses were lung (21.6%), colorectal (18.6%), and liver/biliary tract (13.0%). Median survival was 19.5 days (95% confidence interval [CI95%]: 23.5, 30.6). Total FACIT-sp score was not related to survival time (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.981, CI95% = 0.957, 1.007), and neither were the scores for its two subscales, meaning/peace (HR = 0.969, CI95% = 0.932, 1.008) and faith (HR = 0.981, CI95% = 0.938, 1.026).
Significance of results
Spirituality was not related to survival in advanced cancer inpatients in Korea. Plausible mechanisms merit further investigation.
In this article, we report the synthesis of highly packed graphene oxide-based electrodes (1.25 g/cm3) with a three-dimensional multiscale porous structure (denoted as MPGP) through the ZnO nanodisk (100–500 nm) template and subsequent H2O2 treatment. Consequently, MPGP with a macropore diameter of 100 nm and a mesopore diameter of 2–3 nm was fabricated as the electrode for supercapacitors (SCs). Significantly, the MPGP achieves a high-volumetric capacitance of 327 F/cm3 (262 F/g) at a current density of 1 A/g and retains 240 F/cm3 (192 F/g) at a current density of 16 A/g in 3 M KOH solution. More importantly, it was also capable of delivering a high-volumetric energy density as well as power density in a SC device. Our work shows that the capability of preparing highly packed graphene-based electrodes with high-volumetric as well as specific capacitance is critical for the application of SCs.