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A culture- and age-appropriate instrument for measuring emotion regulation ability is needed for the research and practice of Chinese adolescents’ emotion regulation. This study developed and validated a situational judgment test of emotion regulation ability for Chinese youth (STER-CY). Three samples were recruited, and approximately 4380 5th- to 11th-grade students (but no 9th-grade students) participated in the study. Researchers collected emotional situations and responses based on the life of indigenous samples and examined the reliability and validity of the test scores. The results showed that Cronbach’s alpha and test–retest correlations provided evidence for the reliability of the test scores. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported unidimensionality. Construct validity was further verified by convergent and discriminant validity. Criteria-related validity was confirmed by the correlations between this test and some outcome variables related to emotion regulation. It was also found that girls scored higher on this test than boys did and that emotion regulation ability significantly increased from 5th to 7th grade, but it did not improve from 7th to 11th grade. Considered together, these findings showed that the STER-CY is a psychometrically sound measure of emotion regulation ability and can be used in future research and practice.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of glucose, soya oil or glutamine on jejunal morphology, protein metabolism and protein expression of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling pathway in jejunal villus or crypt compartment of piglets. Forty-two 21 d-weaned piglets were randomly allotted to one of the three isoenergetic diets formulated with glucose, soya oil or glutamine for 28 d. On day 14 or 28, the proteins in crypt enterocytes were analysed with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification and proteins involved in mTORC1 signalling pathway in villus or crypt compartment cells were determined by Western blotting. Our results showed no significant differences (P > 0·05) in jejunal morphology among the three treatments on day 14 or 28. The differentially expressed proteins mainly took part in a few network pathways, including antimicrobial or inflammatory response, cell death and survival, digestive system development and function and carbohydrate metabolism. On day 14 or 28, there were higher protein expression of eukaryotic initiation factor-4E binding protein-1 in jejunal crypt compartment of piglets supplemented with glucose or glutamine compared with soya oil. On day 28, higher protein expression of phosphor-mTOR in crypt compartment was observed in piglets supplemented with glucose compared with the soya oil. In conclusion, the isoenergetic glucose, soya oil or glutamine did not affect the jejunal morphology of piglets; however, they had different effects on the protein metabolism in crypt compartment. Compared with soya oil, glucose or glutamine may be better energy supplies for enterocytes in jejunal crypt compartment.
We aimed to investigate the trends of breast milk lutein concentrations at different times and their relationship with dietary lutein intake during the 12 weeks after delivery. Breast milk samples were collected from thirty-seven mothers at 4, 8 and 12 weeks postpartum. A HPLC detection method was used to measure breast milk lutein concentrations. Dietary intake was assessed using an FFQ, and then dietary lutein intake was calculated. The correlations between dietary lutein intake and breast milk lutein concentrations during lactation were investigated by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. General linear regression models were used to evaluate the optimal regression equation. The mean values of dietary lutein intake at 4, 8 and 12 weeks postpartum were 5·22 (sd 3·60), 7·28 (sd 4·30) and 7·33 (sd 4·24) mg/d, respectively. The mean values of breast milk lutein concentrations at 4, 8 and 12 weeks postpartum were as follows: 46·41 (sd 41·36), 57·96 (sd 40·00) and 62·33 (sd 30·10) μg/l, respectively. Breast milk lutein concentrations were positively associated with dietary lutein intake at 4 weeks postpartum (r 0·527, P < 0·05), which was consistent with the positive correlations observed at 8 and 12 weeks postpartum (r 0·444, P < 0·05; r 0·468, P < 0·05) by the sensitivity analysis. Increased dietary lutein intake can increase the concentration of lutein in the breast milk, and women are recommended to increase their dietary intake of green leafy vegetables and fruits that are rich in lutein during the pregnancy and postpartum periods.
The Weibel instability and the induced magnetic field are of great importance for both astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. Because of the stochasticity of this magnetic field, its main wavelength and mean strength, which are key characteristics of the Weibel instability, are still unobtainable experimentally. In this paper, a theoretical model based on the autocorrelation tensor shows that in proton radiography of the Weibel-instability-induced magnetic field, the proton flux density on the detection plane can be related to the energy spectrum of the magnetic field. It allows us to extract the main wavelength and mean strength of the two-dimensionally isotropic and stochastic magnetic field directly from proton radiography for the first time. Numerical calculations are conducted to verify our theory and show good consistency between pre-set values and the results extracted from proton radiography.
A recently developed symmetry-based theory is extended to derive an algebraic model for compressible turbulent boundary layers (CTBL) – predicting mean profiles of velocity, temperature and density – valid from incompressible to hypersonic flow regimes, thus achieving a Mach number (
) invariant description. The theory leads to a multi-layer analytic form of a stress length function which yields a closure of the mean momentum equation. A generalized Reynolds analogy is then employed to predict the turbulent heat transfer. The mean profiles and the friction coefficient are compared with direct numerical simulations of CTBL for a range of
from 0 (e.g. incompressible) to 6.0 (e.g. hypersonic), with an accuracy notably superior to popular current models such as Baldwin–Lomax and Spalart–Allmaras models. Further analysis shows that the modification is due to an improved eddy viscosity function compared to competing models. The results confirm the validity of our
-invariant stress length function and suggest the path for developing turbulent boundary layer models which incorporate the multi-layer structure.
This article analyzes how creditors’ simultaneous debt and equity holdings affect firm investment policies. We find that firms with dual ownership are less likely to have capital expenditure restrictions in loan contracts, and the relation varies in predicted ways with the monitoring needs of borrowers and the monitoring capacity of dual owners. A less frequent use of capital expenditure restrictions, however, does not result in borrowers’ risk-shifting. Dual ownership firms are also more likely to be granted an unconditional waiver and do not significantly reduce debt issuance or investment expenditures after a financial covenant violation. Our results highlight how dual ownership can help mitigate shareholder–creditor conflicts.
Field surveys indicate that host population size, rather than density, is the most important determinant of monogenean infection dynamics. To verify this prediction, epidemic parameters were monitored for 70 days at five host population sizes held at constant density using a goldfish – Gyrodactylus kobayashii laboratory model. During the first 20 days, the rate of increase of prevalence and mean abundance was faster in small host populations. Total mean prevalence and total mean abundance throughout the experiment were not significantly affected by host population sizes. Higher transmission rates were detected in larger host populations. However, there were no significant differences in effective contact rates among the five host populations on each sampling day during the first 20 days, implying that contact rates may be saturated at a sufficiently high host density. These results demonstrate that the epidemic occurs more quickly in smaller host populations at the beginning of the experiment. However, the epidemic is independent of the host population size due to the similar effective contact rates in the five population sizes. Significant negative influence of the initial body condition (Kn) of uninfected goldfish on total mean abundance of parasites suggests that susceptibility of hosts is also a determinant of parasite transmission.
Semisolid forging is a type of semisolid metal processing with high solid fraction. However, the presence of nanosized particles has strong influences on flow behavior of the composites in the semisolid forging process. In this study, the compression deformation behavior of nanosized Al2O3 particles (Al2O3np) reinforced 7075 aluminum matrix composites with high solid fraction was investigated by conducting semisolid isothermal compression experiment. The microstructures after semisolid compression were characterized. The results showed that the true stress decreased with the increase of the deformation temperature and size of Al2O3np, the decrease of the strain rate and mass fraction of Al2O3np. After semisolid compression, deformation degree in large deformation zone was larger than that in free deformation zone. Besides, the solid grains in large deformation zone showed evidence of having undergone different degrees of plastic deformation under different deformation conditions. Simultaneously, the deformation mechanisms during the semisolid compression process were discussed.
The present study was performed to identify the genotype of a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy family and investigate the clinicopathogenic characteristics and prognostic features of relevant genetic abnormalities. Target sequence capture sequencing was performed to screen for pathogenic alleles in a 32-year-old female patient (proband). Sanger sequencing was carried out to verify the results. Sanger sequencing was also performed on other family members to identify allele carriers. A survival analysis was carried out using published literature and our findings. We found that the proband and her son harboured a Gly716Arg sequence variant of the β-myosin heavy chain. Neither the proband’s father nor the mother were carriers of this sequence variant; thus, the mutation was classified as “de novo”. Further survival analysis revealed that female patients appear to have a longer life expectancy compared with males. Our study may provide an effective approach for the genetic diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Lutein and zeaxanthin are thought to decrease the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD); however, findings have been inconsistent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin and AMD risk. Relevant studies were identified by searching five databases up to April 2010. Reference lists of articles were retrieved, and experts were contacted. Literature search, data extraction and study quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers and results were pooled quantitatively using meta-analysis methods. The potential sources of heterogeneity and publication bias were also estimated. The search yielded six longitudinal cohort studies. The pooled relative risk (RR) for early AMD, comparing the highest with the lowest category of lutein and zeaxanthin intake, was 0·96 (95 % CI 0·78, 1·17). Dietary intake of these carotenoids was significantly related with a reduction in risk of late AMD (RR 0·74; 95 % CI 0·57, 0·97); and a statistically significant inverse association was observed between lutein and zeaxanthin intake and neovascular AMD risk (RR 0·68; 95 % CI 0·51, 0·92). The results were essentially consistent among subgroups stratified by participant characteristics. The findings of the present meta-analysis indicate that dietary lutein and zeaxanthin is not significantly associated with a reduced risk of early AMD, whereas an increase in the intake of these carotenoids may be protective against late AMD. However, additional studies are needed to confirm these relationships.
Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a chronic endemic osteoarthropathy, which mainly occurs in West and Northeast China. Epidemiological studies suggest that Se deficiency is an important environmental factor for the incidence of KBD. Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) belongs to the glutathione peroxidase family, which is crucial for optimal antioxidant defences. Our purpose is to investigate the putative association between GPx4 polymorphisms and the risk of KBD. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR was used to detect two SNP (rs713041, rs4807542) in 219 cases and 194 controls in Han Chinese subjects, and quantitative analysis for the GPx4 mRNA level was performed by the real-time PCR method. The results revealed that linkage disequilibrium existed in the two SNP. A significant difference was observed in the haplotype A-T (P = 0·0066) of GPx4, which was obviously lower in the KBD cases (0·006 v. 0·032 %). Correlation analysis based on a single locus showed no association between each SNP and KBD risk. Furthermore, the GPx4 mRNA level was dramatically lower in the blood of KBD patients. Overall, our finding indicated GPx4 polymorphisms and decreased mRNA level may be related to the development of KBD in the Chinese population, suggesting GPx4 as a possible candidate susceptibility gene for KBD.
The recent split share structure reform in China involves the nontradable shareholders proposing a compensation package to the tradable shareholders in exchange for the listing rights of their shares. We find that state ownership (the major owners of nontradable shares) has a positive effect on the final compensation ratio. In contrast, mutual fund ownership (the major institutional owner of tradable shares) has a negative effect on the compensation ratio and especially in state-owned firms. The evidence is consistent with our predictions that state shareholders have incentives to complete the reform quickly and exert political pressure on mutual funds to accept the terms without a fight.
Using a unique insurance dataset for a sample of Chinese publicly listed companies for the period 1997 through 2003, this study tests the simultaneous linkages between debt capacity, cost of debt, and corporate property insurance. Our results suggest that, on the one hand, a higher cost of debt appears to motivate the use of more property insurance, but high leverage alone does not lead to the purchase of more property insurance. The latter finding might reflect the unique institutional setting of China, for example, where there is a low chanceof legally enforced company liquidation. Also, there is evidence that leverage can interact with tangible assets intensity and exert a positive conjoint effect on the corporate purchase ofproperty insurance. On the other hand, we find evidence that supports that property insurance helps expand insuring firms' debt capacity and helps lower their borrowing costs. However, themoderate evidence on the cost reduction effect suggests that lowering the borrowing cost is likely to be a concern secondary to facilitating corporate borrowing and thereby expanding debt capacity in corporate property insurance decisions in China. Overall, we conclude that debt capacity, cost of debt, and corporate insurance appear to be simultaneously related.
Geochemical and Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic data are presented for volcanic rocks from Zougouyouchaco (30.5 Ma) and Dogai Coring (39.7 Ma) of the southern and middle Qiangtang block in northern Tibet. The volcanic rocks are high-K calc-alkaline trachyandesites and dacites, with SiO2 contents ranging from 58.5 to 67.1 wt % The rocks are enriched in light REE (LREE) and contain high Sr (649 to 986 ppm) and relatively low Yb (0.8 to 1.2 ppm) and Y (9.5 to 16.6 ppm) contents, resulting in high La/Yb (29–58) and Sr/Y (43–92) ratios, as well as relatively high MgO contents and Mg no., similar to the compositions of adakites formed by slab melting in subduction zones. However, the adakitic rocks in the Qiangtang block are characterized by relatively low εNd(t) values (−3.8 to −5.0) and highly radiogenic Sr ((87Sr/86Sr)i=0.706–0.708), which are inconsistent with an origin by slab melting. The geochemistry and tectonics indicate that the adakitic volcanic rocks were most likely derived from partial melting of delaminated lower continental crust. As the pristine adakitic melts rose, they interacted with the surrounding mantle peridotite, elevating their MgO values and Mg numbers.
Selective oxidation of AlAs (or AlGaAs) can be used to form buried, low refractive index apertures within high Q Fabry-Perot microcavities. These apertures provide electrical and optical confinement, and for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have resulted in ultra-low threshold room temperature lasing with threshold currents under 25 μA. When used with quantum dot light emitters, the oxide-apertured microcavity can also be used to control the spontaneous lifetime. We describe the microcavity fabrication based on high Q Fabry-Perot microcavities and selective oxidation, and design and cavity Q constraints for apertured microcavities for quantum well and quantum dot VCSELs and microcavity LEDs. Threshold current densities of quantum well VCSELs are as low as 98 A/cm2, while ground state lasing is also obtained for quantum dot VCSELs. Our initial experiments on microcavities with very small apertures and quantum dot emitters demonstrate up to a factor of 2.3 increase in the spontaneous emission rate.
We discuss new optical spectra and DSS images of a complete sample of very luminous IRAS galaxies. The statistics of classification of spectral types and interactions show that interaction can account for the nuclear activity (AGN and starburst) of ultraluminous infrared galaxies.
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