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This book provides an introduction to the legal system in Hong Kong. Understanding Hong Kong's legal system today requires both an understanding of the British origins of much of the laws and legal institutions as well as the uniquely Hong Kong developments in the application of the Basic Law under 'one country, two systems'. These features of the Hong Kong legal system are explored in this book, which takes into account developments in the two decades or so of the new legal framework in Hong Kong since the 1997 handover. In providing both an exposition of the legal institutions in Hong Kong and legal method under Hong Kong's legal system (including practical guidance and examples on case law, statutory interpretation and legal research), this book is ideal for first-year law students, students of other disciplines who study law and readers who have an interest in Hong Kong's unique legal system.
We assessed inheritance of resistance to sugarcane brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala) in selfing F1 populations of wild sugarcane germplasm Erianthus rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’. We tested parent and selfing F1 individuals for the brown rust resistance gene, Bru1, that has been shown to confer resistance to brown rust in sugarcane. The Bru1 gene was not detected in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’, E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ or their selfing F1 individuals, and we found there was segregation of resistance in the two selfing F1 populations (segregation ratio: 3:1). The results confirmed resistance in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ to sugarcane brown rust is controlled by a novel, single dominant gene.
The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide a comprehensive overview of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 subtypes and to investigate temporal and geographical trends of the HIV-1 epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Chinese and English articles published between January 2007 and December 2017 were systematically searched. Pooled HIV-1 prevalence was calculated, and its stability was analysed using sensitivity analysis. Subgroups were based on study time period, sampling area and prevalence. Publication bias was measured using Funnel plot and Egger's test. A total of 68 independent studies that included HIV-1 molecular investigations were eligible for meta-analysis. Circulating recombinant form (CRF) 01_AE (57.36%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 53.76–60.92) was confirmed as the most prevalent HIV-1 subtype among MSM in China. Subgroup analysis for time period found that CRF01_AE steadily increased prior to 2012 but decreased during 2012–2016. Further whereas CRF07_BC increased over time, B/B′ decreased over time. CRF55_01B has increased in recent years, with higher pooled estimated rate in Guangdong (12.22%, 95% CI 10.34–13.17) and Fujian (8.65%, 95% CI 4.98–13.17) provinces. The distribution of HIV-1 subtypes among MSM in China has changed across different regions and periods. HIV-1 strains in MSM are becoming more complex. Long-term molecular monitoring in this population remains necessary for HIV-1 epidemic control and prevention.
A compact dual-wideband (DWB) bandpass filter utilizing open-shorted coupled lines (OSCL) is proposed in this paper. The introduction of the folded structure not only reduces the overall size but also contribute to the split of the transmission zero (TZ), which improves the selectivity effectively. Six transmission poles and five TZs are realized utilizing the shorted-circuit stub and OSCL. The characteristic of the flexible adjustment method of TZs guarantees an independently wide adjustable range of the bandwidth. For demonstration, a DWB filter (3 dB bandwidth 120 and 28%, respectively) is designed and fabricated. The filter is compact and has the characteristics of extraordinary wide bandwidth, low insertion loss, as well as high selectivity.
A novel freeze-cast porous chitosan conduit for peripheral nerve repair with highly-aligned, double layered porosity, which provides the ideal mechanical and chemical properties was designed, manufactured, and assessed in vivo. Efficacies of the conduit and the control inverted nerve autograft were evaluated in bridging 10-mm Lewis rat sciatic nerve gap at 12 weeks post-implantation. Biocompatibility and regenerative efficacy of the porous chitosan conduit were evaluated through the histomorphometric analysis of longitudinal and transverse sections. The porous chitosan conduit was found to have promising regenerative characteristics, promoting the desired neovascularization, and axonal ingrowth and alignment through a combination of structural, mechanical and chemical cues.
Dietary energy density (ED) might have influences on body composition. We therefore examined whether ED is associated with body composition among Chinese adults.
We collected dietary data through validated two-day 24 h recalls. ED, defined as the amount of energy per unit weight of food consumed, was calculated based on five methods. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore the associations between ED and body composition parameters, including BMI, fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (WC).
Chinese adults (n 1933) in 2013.
After adjusting the covariates, all ED definitions were positively associated with BMI, FMI, FFMI, %BF and WC among women (P<0·01). In men, however, ED with foods only was positively associated with BMI, FMI, FFMI and %BF (P<0·05), but not with WC (P=0·07); we also found null associations between ED with foods and all beverages and body composition among men. Additionally, ED contributed to higher increases of body composition in women than in men (P<0·01).
The present study supports the positive association between ED and body composition among adults in Southwest China, in which beverages may play an important role.
‘Cracked trials’, where defendants enter a late guilty plea after a trial date has been set, are considered a societal problem because public resources set aside for trials are wasted. Various government reports attribute the main cause to tactical defendants playing the system, and reforms have been initiated to encourage early guilty pleas and strongly discourage late ones. The aim of the present study is to investigate the reasons for cracked trials in the Hong Kong context, insofar as the reasons for late guilty pleas can be investigated without the influence of reforms seen in other jurisdictions used to discourage late pleas. A mixed methods approach of courtroom observations and interviews with defendants was adopted. We find that defendants who were represented by publicly-funded lawyers or who were in prolonged pre-trial detention were more disposed to changing their pleas. Subsequent interviews illustrate why these factors are salient. The findings support the notion that it is the pressures of the criminal justice process that lead defendants to ‘crack’ and highlight the costs to defendants for decisions on how to plead that are influenced by considerations other than actual culpability.
This research examined whether feeling awe weakens people's desire for money. Two experiments demonstrated that, as a self-transcendent emotion, awe decreased people's money desire. In Experiment 1, recalling a personal experience of awe makes people place less importance on money, compared with recalling an experience of happiness and recalling a neutral experience. In experiment 2, we examined different variants of awe, such as negative awe and non-nature awe. Viewing images that elicited awe, no matter what kind of awe, can induce people to put less effort into obtaining money. Process evidence suggested that awe's weakening of money desire was due to its power to make people transcend their mundane concerns. Our findings have implications for willingness to donate, price sensitivity, religious practices, and economic utilities.
A stalagmite with high 238U content from Yangkou Cave, China, revealed the evolution of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) between 49.1 and 59.5 ka, and the δ18O values recorded Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events 13–17. The Yangkou record shows a relatively gradual transition into the D/O 14 and 16 events. The discrepancy between the abrupt and gradual transitions of D/O 14 in the records from northern and southern China, respectively, suggests different responses of the ASM to climate changes in the high northern latitudes. The higher resolution δ18O record and more precise 230Th dating indicate that the timing of D/O 14 and 17 in the Hulu records at 53 and 58 ka should be shifted to 54.3 and 59 ka, respectively. The gradual strengthening of the ASM at the onsets of D/O 16 and 14 in our record is different from the abrupt temperature rise in the northern high latitudes. Some other factors must contribute to this relatively gradual ASM change in southern China, but the actual reason is still unknown.
Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) has been described as a potential vaccine candidate in apicomplexan parasites. Here we characterize the ama-1 gene. The full-length ama-1 gene of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) (BLTAMA-1) is 1785 bp, which contains an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 65-kDa protein of 594 amino acid residues; by definition, the 5′ UTR precedes the first methionine of the ORF. Phylogenetic analysis based on AMA-1 amino acid sequences clearly separated Piroplasmida from other Apicomplexa parasites. The Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) AMA-1 sequence is most closely associated with that of B. ovata and B. bigemina, with high bootstrap value. A recombinant protein encoding a conserved region and containing ectodomains I and II of BLTAMA-1 was constructed. BLTrAMA-1-DI/DII proteins were tested for reactivity with sera from sheep infected by Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan). In Western-blot analysis, native Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) AMA-1 proteins were recognized by antibodies raised in rabbits against BLTrAMA-1 in vitro. The results of this study are discussed in terms of gene characterization, taxonomy and antigenicity.
Ovine babesiosis is one of the most important tick-borne haemoparasitic diseases of small ruminants. The ovine parasite Babesia sp. Xinjiang is widespread in China. In this study, recombinant full-length XJrRAP-1aα2 (rhoptry-associated protein 1aα2) and C-terminal XJrRAP-1aα2 CT of Babesia sp. Xinjiang were expressed and used to evaluate their diagnostic potential for Babesia sp. Xinjiang infections by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Purified XJrRAP-1aα2 was tested for reactivity with sera from animals experimentally infected with Babesia sp. Xinjiang and other haemoparasites using Western blotting and ELISA. The results showed no cross-reactivities between XJrRAP-1aα2 CT and sera from animals infected by other pathogens. High level of antibodies against RAP-1a usually lasted 10 weeks post-infection (wpi). A total of 3690 serum samples from small ruminants in 23 provinces located in 59 different regions of China were tested by ELISA. The results indicated that the average positive rate was 30·43%, and the infections were found in all of the investigated provinces. This is the first report on the expression and potential use of a recombinant XJrRAP-1aα2 CT antigen for the development of serological assays for the diagnosis of ovine babesiosis, caused by Babesia sp. Xinjiang.
Anaplasmosis is caused by a group of obligate intracellular bacteria in the genus Anaplasma, which are transmitted by ticks and infect humans, domestic animals and wildlife. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of Anaplasma spp. in semi-wild white yaks sampled in Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County, northwest China. Out of 332 samples tested, 35 (10·9%) were positive for Anaplasma spp. The positive rates were 6·2% (20/322) and 5·3% (17/322) for Anaplasma bovis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in white yaks, respectively. None of the sample was positive for Anaplasma marginale. Two (0·6%) samples were simultaneously positive to A. bovis and A. phagocytophilum. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed two genotypes (ApG1 and ApG2) of A. phagocytophilum and two sequence types (ST1 and ST2) of A. bovis in white yaks. This study is the first to document the presence of Anaplasma in white yaks. Our findings extend the host range for Anaplasma species and provide more valuable information for the control and management of anaplasmosis in white yaks.
Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a key component of the molecular chaperone complex essential for activating many signalling proteins involved in the development and progression of pathogenic cellular transformation. A Hsp90 gene (BQHsp90) was cloned and characterized from Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan), an ovine Babesia isolate belonging to Babesia motasi-like group, by screening a cDNA expression library and performing rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of BQHsp90 is 2399 bp with an open reading frame of 2154 bp encoding a predicted 83 kDa polypeptide with 717 amino acid residues. It shows significant homology and similar structural characteristics to Hsp90 of other apicomplex organisms. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the HSP90 amino acid sequences, showed that the Babesia genus is clearly separated from other apicomplexa genera. Five Chinese ovine Babesia isolates were divided into 2 phylogenetic clusters, namely Babesia sp. Xinjiang (previously designated a new species) cluster and B. motasi-like cluster which could be further divided into 2 subclusters (Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan)/Babesia sp. Tianzhu and Babesia sp. BQ1 (Ningxian)/Babesia sp. Hebei). Finally, the antigenicity of rBQHSP90 protein from prokaryotic expression was also evaluated using western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
This study aimed to explore whether the presence of a Y chromosome azoospermia factor (AZF) microdeletion confers any adverse effect on embryonic development and clinical outcomes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. Fifty-seven patients with AZF microdeletion were included in the present study and 114 oligozoospermia and azoospermia patients without AZF microdeletion were recruited as controls. Both AZF and control groups were further divided into subgroups based upon the methods of semen collection: the AZF-testicular sperm extraction subgroup (AZF-TESE, n = 14), the AZF-ejaculation subgroup (AZF-EJA, n = 43), the control-TESE subgroup (n = 28) and the control-EJA subgroup (n = 86). Clinical data were analyzed in the two groups and four subgroups respectively. A retrospective case–control study was performed. A significantly lower fertilization rate (69.27 versus 75.70%, P = 0.000) and cleavage rate (89.55 versus 94.39%, P = 0.000) was found in AZF group compared with the control group. Furthermore, in AZF-TESE subgroup, the fertilization rate (67.54 versus 74.25%, P = 0.037) and cleavage rate (88.96 versus 94.79%, P = 0.022) were significantly lower than in the control-TESE subgroup; similarly, the fertilization rate (69.85 versus 75.85%, P = 0.004) and cleavage rate (89.36 versus 94.26%, P = 0.002) in AZF-EJA subgroup were significantly lower than in the control-EJA subgroup; however, the fertilization rate and cleavage rate in AZF-TESE (control-TESE) subgroup was similar to that in the AZF-EJA (control-EJA) subgroup. The other clinical outcomes were comparable between four subgroups (P > 0.05). Therefore, sperm from patients with AZF microdeletion, obtained either by ejaculation or TESE, may have lower fertilization and cleavage rates, but seem to have comparable clinical outcomes to those from patients without AZF microdeletion.
We present calculation of critical voltage for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with GaN cap layer. The calculation includes mechanical stress and relaxable energy in the GaN/AlGaN barrier layer. Under high voltage conditions, the high electric field results in an increase in stored relaxable energy. If this exceeds a critical value, crystallographic defects are formed. This degradation mechanism is voltage driven and characterized by a critical voltage beyond which non-reversible degradation takes place. The dependence of the GaN cap layer’s thickness on the critical voltage has been discussed. The calculated results indicate that thicker GaN cap layer results in higher critical voltage.
Pedogenic alteration of illite from red earth sediments in Jiujiang in subtropical China was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Illite, hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite (HIV), kaolinite and mixed-layer illite-HIV (I-HIV) are present in the soils. The characteristic reflections of the clay phases were 14 Å, 10–14 Å, 10 Å, and 7 Å, respectively. After Mg-glycerol saturations, the 14 Å peak of the samples did not expand, and after heating at 350°C and 550°C it shifted to 13.8 Å and 12 Å respectively, with no residual 14 Å reflection, suggesting the occurrence of hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite. The randomly interstratified I-HIV clays were characterized by a broad peak at 10–14 Å, which did not change its position after Mg-glycerol saturation, but collapsed to 10 Å after heating at 350°C and 550°C. HRTEM analysis showed different lattice fringes of 12 Å, 10 Å and 7 Å . Mixed-layer I-HIV, HIV-K and illite-kaolinite (I-K) were observed in the HRTEM images which represented the intermediate phases during illite alteration. The merging of two 10 Å illite layers into a 12 Å HIV layer, lateral transformation of one HIV layer into one kaolinite layer and alteration of one illite layer into two kaolinite layers illustrated the mechanisms of illite-to-HIV, HIV-to-kaolinite and illite-tokaolinite transformation, respectively. The proposed pedogenic alteration of illite and the weathering sequence of the clay minerals in Jiujiang is illite → I-HIV → HIV → HIV-K → kaolinite. In addition, illite may transform directly to kaolinite.
A theoretical study of transconductance characteristics (gm − Vgs profile) of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with a graded AlGaN layer is given in this paper. The calculations were made using a self-consistent solution of the Schrödinger-Poisson equations and an AlGaN/GaN HEMTs numerical device model. Transconductance characteristics of the devices are discussed while the thickness and Al composition of the graded AlGaN layer are optimized. It is found that graded AlGaN layer structure can tailor device’s gm − Vgs profile by improving polar optical phonon mobility and interface roughness mobility. Good agreement is obtained between the theoretical calculations and experimental measurements over the full range of applied gate bias.
In this paper, we study the regularity of a weak solution for a coupled system derived from a microwave-heating model. The main feature of this model is that electric conductivity in the electromagnetic field is assumed to be temperature dependent. It is shown that the weak solution of the coupled system possesses some regularity under certain conditions. In particular, it is shown that the temperature is Hölder continuous, even if electric conductivity has a jump discontinuity with respect to the temperature change. The main idea in the proof is based on an estimate for a linear degenerate system in Campanato space. As an application, the regularity result for the coupled system is used to derive the necessary condition for an optimal control problem arising in microwave heating processes.
The objective of this retrospective study was to determine an optimal time point for vitrification of cleavage-stage human embryos. This study included patients who were undergoing day 2 or day 3 vitrified–warmed cleavage-stage embryo transfer at the In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Programme of the Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, China, affiliated to the Tongji University School of Medicine, from April 2010 to March 2012. Intervention was made for the entire cohort of vitrified embryos for poor responder patients so as to avoid severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Embryo survival rate (SR) after vitrification–warming, implantation rate (IR), and clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) were the main outcome measurements. In total, 380 vitrified–warmed cleavage-stage embryo transfer (VWT) cycles were included. We found that the SR after vitrification and warming for day 2 embryos and day 3 embryos were 92.7% and 92.8%, respectively. For poor ovarian responders, the IR of day 2 and day 3 vitrified–warmed embryos was 6.4% and 13.2%, respectively (P = 0.186). The CPR for day 3 vitrified–warmed embryos was significantly higher than that of day 2 vitrified–warmed embryos (17.6 vs. 4.0 % per transfer cycle, P = 0.036). For patients who had their entire cohort of embryos vitrified to prevent severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), the IR and CPR were not significantly different for day 2 and day 3 vitrified–warmed embryo transfer. In conclusion, for vitrified–warmed embryo transfer, cryopreservation of the entire cohort of embryos on day 3 resulted in better clinical outcomes compared with cryopreservation on day 2. Therefore, it is highly recommended that cleavage-stage embryos should be vitrified on day 3, but not on day 2, particularly for poor ovarian responder patients.