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In sequent calculi, cut elimination is a property that guarantees that any provable formula can be proven analytically. For example, Gentzen’s classical and intuitionistic calculi LK and LJ enjoy cut elimination. The property is less studied in coinductive extensions of sequent calculi. In this paper, we use coinductive Horn clause theories to show that cut is not eliminable in a coinductive extension of LJ, a system we call CLJ. We derive two further practical results from this study. We show that CoLP by Gupta et al. gives rise to cut-free proofs in CLJ with fixpoint terms, and we formulate and implement a novel method of coinductive theory exploration that provides several heuristics for discovery of cut formulae in CLJ.
We present a comparative study of four product operators on weighted languages: (i) the convolution, (ii) the shuffle, (iii) the infiltration and (iv) the Hadamard product. Exploiting the fact that the set of weighted languages is a final coalgebra, we use coinduction to prove that an operator of the classical difference calculus, the Newton transform, generalises from infinite sequences to weighted languages. We show that the Newton transform is an isomorphism of rings that transforms the Hadamard product of two weighted languages into their infiltration product, and we develop various representations for the Newton transform of a language, together with concrete calculation rules for computing them.
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