To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) could induce milk fat depression via regulating the body and blood fat metabolism. However, it is not completely clear how LPS might regulate triglyceride synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs). DCMECs were isolated and purified from dairy cow mammary tissue and treated with LPS. The level of triglyceride synthesis, the expression and activity of the liver X receptor α (LXRα), enzymes related to de novo fatty acid synthesis, and the expression of the fatty acid transporters were investigated. We found that LPS decreased the level of triglyceride synthesis via a down-regulation of the transcription, translation, and nuclear translocation level of the LXRα. The results also indicated that the transcription level of the LXRα target genes, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1), fatty acid synthetase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC1), were significantly down-regulated in DCMECs after LPS treatment. Our data may provide new insight into the mechanisms of milk fat depression caused by LPS.
To determine if specific dietary patterns are associated with breast cancer risk in Chinese women.
Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to identify generic dietary patterns based on daily food-frequency data.
The Chinese Wuxi Exposure and Breast Cancer Study (2013-2014).
A population-based case-control study (695 cases, 804 controls).
Four dietary patterns were identified, Prudent, Chinese traditional, Western, and Picky, the proportion in the controls and cases were 0.30/0.32/0.16/0.23 and 0.29/0.26/0.11/0.33, respectively. Women in Picky class were characterized by higher extreme probabilities of non-consumption on specific foods, the highest probabilities of consumption of pickled foods, and the lowest probabilities of consumption of cereals, soy foods, and nuts. Compared with Prudent class, Picky class was associated with a higher risk (OR=1.42, 95%CI=1.06, 1.90), while the relevant association was only in post- (OR=1.44, 95%CI=1.01, 2.05) but not premenopausal women. The Western class characterized by high-protein, -fat, and -sugar foods, the Chinese traditional class characterized by typical consumption of soy foods and white meat over red meat, both of them showed no difference in BC risk compared with Prudent class did.
LCA capture the heterogeneity of individuals embedded in the population, could be a useful approach in the study of dietary pattern and disease. Our results indicated that the Picky class might have a positive association with the risk of breast cancer.
COVID-19 has spread to most countries around the world, infecting millions of people and resulting in the pandemic. This presents great challenges for dental professionals. It is necessary to explore preventive measures for COVID-19 in dental treatments.
In this paper, we outline several measures designed to prevent COVID-19 in dental treatments, such as three-level pre-examination triage and two-body temperature tests, three-level protection for medical personnel, gargle before oral treatment, implement the four-hand operation, suctioning saliva during oral treatment, use a rubber dam, strict enforcement of hand hygiene. These measures include recommendations for medical staff and give practical advice for managing treatment.
The epidemic has been brought under control and routine oral examination and treatments have gradually been resumed from March 9, 2020, in Hunan province, China. From January 24, 2020, to March 8, 2020, a total of 4,272 patients received oral therapy during the COVID-19 epidemic in our hospital. We followed these guidelines during the COVID-19 epidemic and none of the clinical dental staff, other workers, or patients were infected with COVID-19.
These preventive measures for COVID-19 in dental treatments can be used as a reference for oral clinics and stomatological hospitals.
Understanding the patterns of treatment response is critical for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia; one way to achieve this is through using a longitudinal dynamic process study design.
This study aims to explore the response trajectory of antipsychotics and compare the treatment responses of seven different antipsychotics over 6 weeks in patients with schizoprenia (trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: ChiCTR-TRC-10000934).
Data were collected from a multicentre, randomised open-label clinical trial. Patients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline and follow-up at weeks 2, 4 and 6. Trajectory groups were classified by the method of k-means cluster modelling for longitudinal data. Trajectory analyses were also employed for the seven antipsychotic groups.
The early treatment response trajectories were classified into a high-trajectory group of better responders and a low-trajectory group of worse responders. The results of trajectory analysis showed differences compared with the classification method characterised by a 50% reduction in PANSS scores at week 6. A total of 349 patients were inconsistently grouped by the two methods, with a significant difference in the composition ratio of treatment response groups using these two methods (χ2 = 43.37, P < 0.001). There was no differential contribution of high- and low trajectories to different drugs (χ2 = 12.52, P = 0.051); olanzapine and risperidone, which had a larger proportion in the >50% reduction at week 6, performed better than aripiprazole, quetiapine, ziprasidone and perphenazine.
The trajectory analysis of treatment response to schizophrenia revealed two distinct trajectories. Comparing the treatment responses to different antipsychotics through longitudinal analysis may offer a new perspective for evaluating antipsychotics.
While the majority of worldwide hepatitis E viral (HEV) infections that occur in people are from contaminated water or food sources, there has also been a steadily rising number of reported cases of transfusion-transmitted HEV (TT-HEV) in blood donation recipients. For most, HEV infection is acute, self-limiting and asymptomatic. However, patients that are immunocompromised, especially transplant patients, are at much higher risk for developing chronic infections, which can progress to cirrhosis and liver failure, along with overall increased mortality. Because of the rising trend of HEV serological prevalence among the global population, and the fact that TT-HEV infection can cause serious clinical consequences among those patients most at need for blood donation, the need for screening for TT-HEV has been gaining in prominence as an important public health concern for both developing and developed countries. In the review, we summarise evidence for and notable cases of TT-HEV infections, the various aspects of HEV screening protocols and recent trends in the implementation of TT-HEV broad-based blood screening programmes.
Phase-resolved wave simulation and direct numerical simulation of turbulence are performed to investigate the surface wave effects on the energy transfer in overlying turbulent flow. The JONSWAP spectrum is used to initialize a broadband wave field. The nonlinear wave field is simulated using a high-order spectral method, and the resultant wave surface provides the bottom boundary conditions for direct numerical simulation of the overlying turbulent flow. Two wave ages of
and 25 are considered, corresponding to slow and fast wave fields, respectively, where
denotes the celerity of the peak wave and
denotes the friction velocity. The energy transfer of turbulent motions in the presence of surface waves is investigated through the spectral analysis of the two-point correlation transport equation. It is found that the production term has an extra peak at the dominant wavelength scale in the vicinity of the surface, and the energy transported to the surface via viscous and spatial turbulent transport is enhanced in the region of
. The presence of surface waves results in an inverse turbulent energy cascade in the near-surface region, where small-scale wave-related motions transfer energy back to the dominant wavelength scale. Pressure-related terms reflecting the spatial and inter-component energy transfer are strongly dependent on the wave age. Furthermore, triadic interaction analysis reveals that the energy influx at the dominant wavelength scale is due to the contribution of the neighbouring streamwise turbulent motions, and those at the harmonic wavelength scales contribute the most.
Flax seed meal (FSM) is rich in various nutrients, especially CP and energy, and can be used as animal protein feed. In animal husbandry production, it is a long-term goal to replace soybean meal (SBM) in animal feed with other plant protein feed. However, studies on the effects of replacing SBM with FSM in fattening sheep are limited. The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of replacing a portion of SBM with FSM on nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis and growth performance in sheep. Thirty-six Dorper × Small Thin-Tailed crossbred rams (BW = 40.4 ± 1.73 kg, mean ± SD) were randomly assigned into four groups. The dietary treatments (forage/concentrate, 45 : 55) were isocaloric according to the nutrient requirements of rams. Soybean meal was replaced with FSM at different levels (DM basis): (1) 18% SBM (18SBM), (2) 12% SBM and 6% FSM (6FSM), (3) 6% SBM and 12% FSM (12FSM) and (4) 18% FSM (18FSM). The rams were fed in individual pens for 60 days, with the first 10 days for adaptation to diets, and then the digestibility of nutrients was determined. There was no significant difference in DM intake, but quadratic (P < 0.001) effects on the average daily gain and feed efficiency were detected, with the highest values in the 6FSM and 12FSM groups. For DM and NDF digestibility, quadratic effects were observed with the higher values in the 6FSM and 12FSM groups, but the digestibility of CP linearly decreased with the increase in FSM in the diet (P = 0.043). There was a quadratic (P < 0.001) effect of FSM inclusion rate on the estimated microbial CP yield. However, the values of intestinally absorbable dietary protein decreased linearly (P < 0.001). For the supply of metabolisable protein, both the linear (P = 0.001) and quadratic (P = 0.044) effects were observed with the lowest value in the 18FSM group. Overall, the results indicated that SBM can be effectively replaced by FSM in the diets of fattening sheep and the optimal proportion was 12.0% under the conditions of this experiment.
LiMnxCoyNi1−x−yO2 (LMCNO) has been broadly investigated and commercialized primarily as lithium ion battery (LIB) cathodes, owing to its high operating voltage, large energy density, and superior electronic conductivity. However, poor cycling stability induced by the rapid structure degradation limits their further development. Coating is regarded as a very effective strategy to address the problem of structure degradation. Regrettably, the coating layers obtained by traditional methods are usually thick, which is not appropriate for delivering of integrated performance. As an emerging coating technology, atomic layer deposition (ALD) demonstrates immeasurable advantages in deposition of ultrathin coating materials because of its atomic-level precision, and has been widely applied in construction of the coating layers on LMCNO substrate materials. Herein, we firstly outline the development and mechanism of ALD technology, and then systematically summarize intrinsic reasons for the enhanced electrochemical performance. Finally, we propose new insights toward designing and preparing the coating structure of LMCNO cathodes by controllable ALD for the next-generation LIBs.
Lithium was added to the hypereutectic Mg–Ni alloy to investigate the effect of volatilization of Li on the hydrogen storage characteristics of the eutectic Mg–Ni alloy at 300 °C. After fully activated at 300 °C, Li was almost completely volatilized and the structure of Li-containing Mg82Ni18 alloy was converted to the structure of Li-free Mg82Ni18 alloy, but hydrogen absorption capacity significantly decreased. This is because volatilization of Li weakened the bonding between eutectic Mg and Mg2Ni, lowering the catalytic effect of Mg2Ni on Mg. The decrease in hydrogen absorption capacity was more obvious with increasing Li content. In addition, experimental alloy in powder form could increase surface area, causing Li to volatilize at 300 °C.
This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics, risk factors and outcomes of adult patients with candidaemia caused by C. albicans vs. non-albicans Candida spp. (NAC). All adult hospitalised cases of candidaemia (2012–2017) at a tertiary hospital in Shenyang were included in the retrospective study, and a total of 180 episodes were analysed. C. parapsilosis was the most frequently isolated species (38.3%), followed by C. albicans (35.6%), C. glabrata (13.9%), C. tropicalis (10%) and others (2.2%). As initial antifungal therapy, 75.0%, 3.9%, 5.6% and 2.2% of patients received fluconazole, caspofungin, micafungin and voriconazole, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that total parenteral nutrition was associated with an increased risk of NAC bloodstream infections (BSI) (OR 2.535, 95% CI (1.066–6.026)) vs. C. albicans BSI. Additionally, the presence of a urinary catheter was associated with an increased risk of C. albicans BSI (OR 2.295 (1.129–4.666)) vs. NAC BSI. Moreover, ICU stay (OR 4.013 (1.476–10.906)), renal failure (OR 3.24 (1.084–9.683)), thrombocytopaenia (OR 7.171 (2.152–23.892)) and C. albicans (OR 3.629 (1.352–9.743)) were independent risk factors for candidaemia-related 30-day mortality, while recent cancer surgery was associated with reduced mortality risk (OR 26.479 (2.550–274.918)). All these factors may provide useful information to select initial empirical antifungal agents.
Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) is an endangered species, listed as a grade I protected animal in China. The females rarely successfully develop their gonads from stage II to III in captivity, which handicaps the propagation of cultured Chinese sturgeon. The present study aimed to understand the effects of dietary lipid level on the ovarian development and the related regulation mechanism in female Chinese sturgeon. A 24-month feeding trial was conducted with 10-year-old Chinese sturgeons with ovaries at the developmental stage II, with three experimental diets containing 10, 14 and 18 % lipids. Ovary, muscle and serum samples were collected at four time points (6, 12, 18 and 24 months) for further analyses. Serum metabolomics and ovary transcriptomics analyses were conducted at 18 months. Results showed that only the 18 % lipid diet promoted ovary development to stage IV. Oocytes at stage II in this group also exhibited higher diameter and more lipid droplets. Serum TAG content in the 18 % group was significantly higher than in 10 and 14 % groups (both at 12 and 18 months). Oestradiol content in the 14 % group was significantly higher than in 10 and 18 % groups, except at 24 months. Metabolomic and transcriptomic results indirectly indicated that 14 % of dietary lipids benefited steroid hormone synthesis, while 18 % lipid facilitated arachidonic acid metabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis and vitellogenesis, although serum cholesterol content did not vary with dietary lipid level. In conclusion, 18 % dietary lipid is the optimal level for improving gonad development of female Chinese sturgeon.
This study aimed to identify the important capacities that were most urgently needed during emergency response and factors associated with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) professionals’ field coping-capacity for public health emergency.
Professional workers (N = 1854) from 40 CDC institutions were chosen using the stratified cluster random sampling method in all 13 municipalities of Heilongjiang Province, China. Descriptive analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used.
Of 10 key capacities, the 3 that were most urgently needed during emergency response fieldwork as identified by respondents were crisis communication capacity, personal protection capacity, and laboratory detection capacity. Overall, 38.1% of respondents self-rated as “poor” on their coping-capacity. The logistic regression found that proficiency in emergency preparedness planning, more practical experiences in emergency response, effectiveness in training and drills, a higher education level, and a higher professional position were significantly associated with the individual’s field coping-capacity.
This study identified CDC professionals’ most urgent capacity need and the obstructive factors and highlighted the importance of enhancing the capacity in crisis communication, personal protection, and laboratory detection. Intervention should be targeted at sufficient fund, formalized, and effective emergency training and drills, more operational technical guidance, and all-around supervision and evaluation.
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability and polygenic inheritance. Multimodal neuroimaging studies have also indicated that abnormalities of brain structure and function are a plausible neurobiological characterisation of schizophrenia. However, the polygenic effects of schizophrenia on these imaging endophenotypes have not yet been fully elucidated.
To investigate the effects of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on the brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity, which are disrupted in schizophrenia.
Genomic and neuroimaging data from a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (N = 509) and healthy controls (N = 502) were included in this study. We examined grey matter volume and functional connectivity via structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Using the data from a recent meta-analysis of a genome-wide association study that comprised a large number of Chinese people, we calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each participant.
The imaging genetic analysis revealed that the individual PGRS showed a significantly negative correlation with the hippocampal grey matter volume and hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, both of which were lower in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. We also found that the observed neuroimaging measures showed weak but similar changes in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.
These findings suggested that genetically influenced brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity may provide important clues for understanding the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia and for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.
The three-dimensional flow characteristics of the compressible vortex ring generated by under-expanded circular jets with two typical pressure ratios, i.e.
(moderate) and 4.0 (high), are investigated numerically with the use of large-eddy simulations. Our results illustrate that these two pressure ratios correspond to different shock structures (shock cell and Mach disc, respectively) within the jet. These two typical types of flow structures and characteristics are discussed and validated with experiments, and the different generation mechanisms of the secondary vortex rings are compared. Moreover, detailed information about the evolution of the secondary vortex ring, primary vortex ring and turbulence transition features, including the radial and azimuthal modes, is investigated. The geometric features and mixing effects of the jets are also explored.
Information systems (IS) have facilitated workflow in the health care system for years. However, the utilization of IS in disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs) has been less studied.
In Taiwan, we started a program in 2008 to build up an information system, MEDical Assistance and Information Dashboard (MED-AID), to improve the capability and increase the efficiency of our national DMAT.
Method: The mission of our national DMAT was to provide acute trauma care and subacute outpatient care in the field after an emergency event (e.g., earthquakes). We built the IS through a user-oriented process to fit the need of the DMAT. We first analyzed the response work in the DMAT missions and reviewed the current paperwork. We evaluated the eligibility and effectiveness of the core functions of DMATs by experts in Taiwan and then developed the IS. The IS was then tested and revised each year in two table-top exercises and one regional full-scale exercise by the DMAT staffs who came from different hospitals in Taiwan.
During the past 10 years, we identified several core concepts of IS of DMAT: patient tracking, medical record, continuity of care, integration of referral resources, disease surveillance, patient information reporting, and medical resources management. The application of the IS facilitate the DMAT in providing safe patient care with continuous recording and integrate patient referral resources based on geographic information. The IS also help the planning in real-time disease surveillance and logistic function in the medical resources monitoring.
Information systems could facilitate patient care and relieve the workload on information analysis and resources management for DMATs.
In situ U–Pb and Hf analyses were used for crustal zircon xenocrysts from Triassic kimberlites exposed in the Rangnim Massif of North Korea to identify components of the basement hidden in the deep crust of the Rangnim Massif and to clarify the crustal evolution of the massif. The U–Pb age spectrum of the zircons has a prominent population at 1.9–1.8 Ga and a lack of Archaean ages. The data indicate that the deep crust and basement beneath the Rangnim Massif are predominantly of Palaeoproterozoic age, consistent with the ages of widely exposed Palaeoproterozoic granitic rocks. In situ zircon Hf isotope data show that most of the Palaeoproterozoic zircon xenocrysts have negative ϵHf(t) values (−9.7 to +0.7) with an average Hf model age of 2.86 ± 0.02 Ga (2σ), which suggests that the Palaeoproterozoic basement was not juvenile but derived from the reworking of Archaean rocks. Considering the existence of Archaean remanent material in the Rangnim Massif and their juvenile features, a strong crustal reworking event is indicated at 1.9–1.8 Ga, during which time the pre-existing Archaean basement was exhausted and replaced by a newly formed Palaeoproterozoic basement. These features suggest that the Rangnim Massif constitutes the eastern extension of the Palaeoproterozoic Liao–Ji Belt of the North China Craton instead of the Archaean Liaonan Block as previously thought. A huge Palaeoproterozoic orogen may exist in the eastern margin of the Sino-Korean Craton.
Essential tremor (ET) is a neurological movement disorder characterised by bilateral limb kinetic/postural tremor, with or without tremor in other body parts including head, voice and lower limbs. Since no causative genes for ET have been identified, it is likely that the disorder occurs as a result of complex genetic factors interacting with various cellular and environmental factors that can result in abnormal function of circuitry involving the cerebello–thalamo–cortical pathway. Genetic analyses have uncovered at least 14 loci and 11 genes that are related to ET, as well as various risk or protective genetic factors. Limitations in ET genetic analyses include inconsistent disease definition, small sample size, varied ethnic backgrounds and many other factors that may contribute to paucity of relevant genetic data in ET. Genetic analyses, coupled with functional and animal studies, have led to better insights into possible pathogenic mechanisms underlying ET. These genetic studies may guide the future development of genetic testing and counselling, and specific, pathogenesis-targeted, therapeutic strategies.
The piezophotonic effect is the coupling between piezoelectric properties and photoexcitation, where strain-induced piezopotential modulates and controls the relevant optical process. Specifically, metal ions as activators are capable of responding to photoexcitation and subsequent emission of light, also called mechanoluminescence, in general, and piezoluminescence specifically for piezoelectrics. These phenomena are helpful for understanding the materials fundamentals and conceiving widespread device applications. In this article, we briefly introduce the physical mechanisms of piezophotonics, including piezoluminescence. Selected host materials and metal-ion activators are described for demonstrating the piezophotonic effect. We provide a unified profile and recent prototypical demonstrations of light emission triggered by mechanical stimuli. The devices based on these materials offer the advantages of remote detection, nondestructive analysis, and repeatability, hence they are promising candidates for applications in stress sensing, structural health diagnosis, three-dimensional handwriting, magnetic-optical sensing, energy harvesting, biomedicine, novel light sources, and displays.