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Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a significant zoonosis, especially in developing countries of the Middle East, with many studies focusing on CE genotypes in Iran. We performed a systematic review to determine the exact status of E. granulosus genotypes in the country. We explored English (Pubmed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science and Science Direct) and Persian (Magiran, Iran Medex and Scientific Information Database) databases along with Google Scholar. Our review included 73 studies published prior to the end of 2015. In total, 2952 animal (intermediate and definitive) hosts were examined, and the prevalent genotypes comprised G1 (92.75%) and G6 (4.53%) in sheep, cattle, camels, goats and buffaloes; G3 (2.43%) in five herbivore hosts and dogs; G7 (0.2%) in sheep and goats; and G2 (0.06%) in dogs. G1 was mostly dominant in West Azerbaijan, whereas G3 and G6 were identified most frequently in the provinces of Isfahan and Fars, respectively. Regarding human CE infection, 340 cases were reported from Iran, with the identified genotypes G1 (n = 320), G6 (n = 13) and G3 (n = 7). Most CE-infected humans originated from Isfahan province (168 cases), whereas the lowest number of infected persons was noted in Kerman province (two cases). The information obtained from this systematic review is central to better understanding the biological and epidemiological characteristics of E. granulosus s.l. genotypes in Iran, leading to more comprehensive control strategies.
As a significant zoonosis, cystic echinococcosis (CE) is endemic in some parts of the world, such as the Middle East. There are studies on the prevalence of this infection in animal and human reservoirs in Iran; hence, we conducted this meta-analysis to elucidate the prevalence of CE in Iran. English (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct and Google Scholar) and Persian (Magiran, Iran Medex, Iran Doc and SID) databases were explored. In the case of definitive, animal and human intermediate hosts, 37, 90 and 33 studies, respectively, have been included in the current review from January 1990 to December 2015. According to outcomes of the heterogeneity test, either Der Simonian and Laird's random-effects method or Mantel–Haenszel's fixed-effects method were employed to pool the estimations. The pooled prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus infection in definitive hosts was calculated as 23.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 17.6–30.1%). The weighted prevalence of animal and human hydatidosis was calculated as 15.6% (95% CI = 14.2–17.1%) and 4.2% (95% CI = 3.0–5.5%), respectively. Meanwhile, most cases of human hydatidosis were in southern Iran, with a prevalence of 5.8% (3.2–9.2%). In terms of human hydatidosis, more infections were found in rural regions, and mostly in female individuals. Egger's regression test revealed publication bias, with a remarkable impact on total prevalence of the infection in animal intermediate hosts (P < 0.001), while it was not significant in human hosts (P = 0.4) and definitive hosts (P = 0.3). According to the weighted estimated prevalence of cystic echinococcosis and its financial burden, implementing appropriate control programmes should be compulsory to decrease the burden of the disease in Iran.
The Anarak Metamorphic Complex, localized in Central Iran, is a fossil accretionary wedge composed of several tectonometamorphic units. Some of these, the Chah Gorbeh, the Morghab and the Ophiolitic complexes, contain mafic rocks that have been metamorphosed at high-pressure–low-temperature conditions. Such units have been stacked together and later refolded during the final stages of exhumation. Structural analysis at the mesoscale recognized at least three deformation events. Microstructural analyses, mineral chemistry and thermodynamic modelling reveal that the mafic schists followed contrasting P–T paths during their tectonometamorphic evolutions. In the schists of the Chah Gorbeh and Ophiolitic complexes an early greenschist-facies stage was later overprinted by blueschist-facies phase assemblages with suggested peak conditions of 390–440°C at 0.6–0.9 GPa for the meta-basalt within the Ophiolitic Complex and 320–380°C at 0.6–0.9 GPa for the blueschists of the Chah Gorbeh Complex. P–T conditions at metamorphic peak were 410–450°C at 0.78–0.9 GPa for the Morghab blueschists, but they are reached before a greenschist-facies re-equilibration. Compositional zoning of amphiboles and epidotes of this greenschist-facies stage suggests a renewed pressure increase at the end of this metamorphic stage. Based on these data we reconstructed a clockwise P–T path for the Morghab mafic schists and a counter-clockwise path for the Chah Gorbeh blueschists and ophiolitic meta-basalts. Such contrasting metamorphic evolutions of tectonic units that were later accreted to the same wedge are indicative of the complex tectonic dynamics that occur within accretionary–subduction complexes.
Movement between host plants during the growing season is a common behaviour among insect herbivores, although the mechanisms promoting these movements are poorly understood for many systems. Two possible reasons why insect herbivores relocate include compensating for host plant quantity and/or quality changes and the avoidance of natural enemies. The Arctic caterpillar (Gynaephora groenlandica (Wocke); Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) moves several metres each day, feeds on its patchily distributed host plant, Arctic willow (Salix arctica Pallas; Salicaceae), and has two main natural enemies, the parasitoids Exorista thula Wood (Diptera: Tachinidae) and Hyposoter diechmanni (Nielsen) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). We physically moved caterpillars between Arctic willows and restricted other caterpillar individuals each to a single willow throughout the active period of Arctic caterpillars. We found that growth rate, herbivory rate, and the proportion of available leaf fascicles eaten were higher for experimentally moved caterpillars. Parasitoid abundances were low and did not differ between experimentally moved and stationary caterpillars. Taken together, our study addresses the bottom–up and top–down controls on insect herbivore movement during the short duration of the growing season in the Arctic. Our results suggest that caterpillars are likely moving to new willow shrubs to access high quality resources.
Feeding antibiotics as growth promoters has had a substantial role in the poultry industry historically, although many countries now limit their use due to concerns over residues and microbial resistance in human medicine. For many years medicinal plants have been used as pharmaceuticals in natural therapy. However, limited studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of certain plants as feed additives in poultry. The importance and use of black pepper, cinnamon and turmeric is reviewed in the following paper. Black pepper acts as an antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Cinnamon has anti-allergenic, antioxidant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and blood purifying properties and aids in digestion. Turmeric acts as an antioxidant, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent and protects the liver against a variety of toxins. However, a systematic approach toward the efficacy and safety of these plant materials and their active compounds in poultry is still lacking.
This study tested the hypothesis that part of the age-related decline in performance on executive function tasks is due to a decline in episodic memory. For this, we developed a rule induction task in which we manipulated the involvement of episodic memory and executive control processes; age effects and neuropsychological predictors of task performance were investigated. Twenty-six younger (mean age, 24.0; range, 19–35 years) and 27 community-dwelling older adults (mean age, 67.5; range, 50–91 years) participated. The neuropsychological predictors consisted of the performance on tests of episodic memory, working memory, switching, inhibition and flexibility. Performance of the older adults was worse for the learning and memorization of simple rules, as well as for the more demanding executive control condition requiring the manipulation of informational content. Episodic memory was the only predictor of performance on the simple learning and memorization task condition whereas an increase in rule induction complexity additionally engaged working memory processes. Together, these findings indicate that part of the age-related decline on rule induction tests may be the result of a decline in episodic memory. Further studies are needed that examine the role of episodic memory in other executive function tasks in aging. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–9)
The coastline along the southern Arabian Gulf between Al Jubail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and Dubai, UAE, appears to have risen at least 125 m in the last 18,000 years. Dating and topographic surveying of paleo-dunes (43–53 ka), paleo-marine terraces (17–30 ka), and paleo-marine shorelines (3.3–5.5 ka) document a rapid, > 1 mm/a subsidence, followed by a 6 mm/a uplift that is decreasing with time. The mechanism causing this movement remains elusive but may be related to the translation of the coastal area through the backbasin to forebulge hinge line movement of the Arabian plate or, alternatively, by movement of the underlying Infracambrian-age Hormuz salt in response to sea-level changes associated with continental glaciation. Independent of the mechanism, rapid and episodic uplift may impact the design of engineering projects such as nuclear power plants, airports, and artificial islands as well as the interpretation of sedimentation and archeology of the area.
Nurses have pivotal roles before, during, and after disasters. Enhancing their professional skills to help the injured is one the basic principles in health management in disasters. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of training disaster nursing preparedness on improving the preparedness of nurses.
Using a quasi-experimental method, 113 nurses were selected randomly. The preparedness program, which consisted of a one-day workshop on disaster management, a tabletop exercise, and an operational maneuver, was executed for the participants. The preparedness of all participating nurses was measured by disaster preparedness questionnaire, one week and also one month after the program. Data analysis was performed by using the ANOVA test.
The mean scores of knowledge, attitude, and performance improved from 5.55 to 19.88, from 66.18 to 72.41, and from 3.36 to 12.48, respectively (p < 0.001). In addition, the mean of total preparedness score was increased from 75.14 in pretest to 104.77 in the follow up (p < 0.001).
Preparedness plan training improves participants' preparedness for responding disasters, because preparedness and reliability for responding to disasters is influenced directly by the training courses and previous experiments. Therefore, based on the results obtained in this project, in order to improve the preparedness of nursing staff, including a disaster preparedness plan in academic, educational curriculum and as a continuing educational program is recommended.
Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) provides information on the crystallographic structure of a sample, while scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) provides information on its electrical properties. The advantage of these techniques is their high spatial resolution, which cannot be attained with any other techniques. However, because these techniques analyze the top layers of the sample, surface or cross section features directly influence the results of the measurements, and sample preparation is a main step in the analysis.
In this work we investigated different methods to prepare cross sections of CdTe/CdS solar cells for EBSD and SKPM analyses. We observed that procedures used to prepare surfaces for EBSD are not suitable to prepare cross sections, and we were able to develop a process using polishing and ion-beam milling. This process resulted in very good results and allowed us to reveal important aspects of the cross section of the CdTe films. For SKPM, polishing and a light ion-beam milling resulted in cross sections that provided good data. We were able to observe the depletion region on the CdTe film and the p-n junction as well as the interdiffusion layer between CdTe and CdS. However, preparing good-quality cross sections for SKPM is not a reproducible process, and artifacts are often observed.
This study reports the results obtained in the search of chromosomal regions affecting fleece traits in a population of Angora goats in the Argentinean Patagonia. Six hundred thirty-four offspring from 14 parental half-sib families were used. Nine phenotypic fleece traits were recorded at 4 and 11 months of age. A genome examination using 85 informative molecular markers was conducted. A linkage analysis was performed using a regression interval analysis. Our study identified 10 genomic regions affecting the average fibre diameter, coefficient of variation of the average fibre diameter, percentage of fibres with diameters over 30 µm, greasy fleece weight, staple length, average curvature of fibres, percentage of continuous medullated fibres and percentage of kemp fibres located on five goat chromosomes (1, 2, 5, 13 and 19). These results show that the average size of the quantitative trait loci effect was 1.6 phenotypic standard deviations for different traits and families. The aims of quantitative trait loci detection is the potential use of these molecular markers to increase accuracy in predicting the genetic merit of breeding and its implementation in animal breeding schemes through marker-assisted selection.
Iranian buffalo have a wide geographical distribution. Buffalo production is an important livestock sector, as a source of milk and meat. Knowledge of the genetic population of the buffalo is one of the main steps in breed conservation programmes and may have implications for future breeding strategies. Microsatellites are now widely used since they are numerous, randomly distributed in the genome, highly polymorphic and show co-dominance inheritance (Hillel et al., 2003). The objective of the present study is to determine and characterise the genetic diversity and the genetic structure of the Mazandaran buffalo population by using 13 polymorphic microsatellite markers.
The aim was to establish a representative model of the bovine mammary gland in order to underpin applied research in mammary gland development and lactation. Cell culture insert methodology is currently being utilized in place of a three dimensional culture system, the shortcomings of which have been discussed elsewhere (McConochie et al., 2004). Cell culture insert methodology offers a promising alternative, with the potential to recreate in vitro a polarised epithelial layer. Previously it has been shown that on collagen I coated inserts, ABERMEC are able to synthesise and secrete mammary specific proteins in the apparent absence of the key mediators laminin and prolactin. It was hypothesised that undefined factors in serum were a possible cause for this phenomenon.
Spectroscopic properties of conjugated molecules/polymers have varying degrees of sensitivity to backbone conformation. Optical studies are presented as a function of temperature and hydrostatic pressure, using photoluminescence and Raman scattering from two polymers with distinct differences in their backbone conformation, namely, polyfluorene (PF) and ladder type poly(para-phenylene)(m-LPPP). In contrast to the photoluminescence (PL) vibronics in mLPPP, the 0-0 PL vibronic peak in PF shows a red-shift with increasing temperatures. Pressure studies reveal that the PL spectrum of PF red-shifts and broadens with increasing pressures. The phonon lines in PF show an antiresonance effect at higher pressures indicating a strong electron-phonon interaction.
A model is presented to calculate glass-transition temperatures. This model in combination with experimental data is used to evaluate archival-life stability of common phase change materials Ge2Sb2Te5 and doped eutectic Sb2Te compositions.
On the basis of this model, novel high-data-rate phase change compositions have been identified near and on the pseudo-binary line InSb-GaSb in the ternary system Ga-In-Sb.