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In order to know the characteristics of reducing the exhaust gas infrared signal of the lobed mixer according to the external air mixing ratio, an infrared signal and temperature distribution measurement using a micro-turbojet engine is performed. A certain amount of compressed air is supplied through an external duct mounted on the micro-turbojet engine exhaust to simulate bypass flow, which is mixed with high-temperature core air and ejected to the atmosphere. The exhaust nozzle used in the experiment is a lobed mixer with a lobe of sinusoidal shape and is designed to have a penetration of 0.2. Exhaust gas temperature and infrared signal are measured according to distance from nozzle outlet under conditions of bypass ratio of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.4. Infrared reduction rates are compared to data without compressed air supply. As a result of the experiment, as the bypass ratio increased, the infrared signal of the exhaust gas and the temperature decrease with bypass ratio increase, and in the case of a bypass ratio of 1.4, the effect of reducing the temperature is observed even at a long distance. In addition, we compared the results of previous studies of a simple cone shape without mixer with infrared reduction effect. The results show that the lobed mixer has a greater effect on reducing the temperature of the exhaust gas and reducing the infrared signal than the cone nozzle. The structure of the mixed jet flow is also studied through Schlieren visualisation and 3D temperature distribution.
In patients diagnosed with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) cognitive functions are also affected in addition to memory. The aim of the present study was to characterize these cognitive impairments in detail.
So far 35 patients with aMCI and 26 matched controls were investigated using following subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB): Delayed Matching to Sample, Spatial Recognition Memory, Spatial Working Memory, Rapid Visual Processing, and Stockings of Cambridge. Additionally, we used Corsi Block Tapping from the Wechsler Memory Scale Revised to examine spatial working memory and spatial attention.
The aMCI group performed significantly worse than the control group in Delayed Matching to Sample, Spatial Working Memory, Rapid Visual Processing, Stockings of Cambridge, and Corsi Block Tapping backwards.
In summary, patients with aMCI demonstrate reduced skills in visual memory, spatial planning, spatial working memory, and sustained attention compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, this suggests that CANTAB may be a tool for diagnosis of the cognitive status of aMCI patients.
The extent of working memory (WM) impairment has rarely been studied in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cortical activation in these patients compared to healthy controls while performing a visuo-spatial WM task.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a 3-Tesla head scanner (Allegra, Siemens) was used to investigate the neural correlates of WM in 25 aMCI subjects and 12 matched controls while performing a visual-spatial n-back task (2-back). Both groups were pretested to ensure that all participants were able to understand and perform the task.
In comparison to the healthy subjects, a random-effects analysis revealed that patients with aMCI showed less cortical activation especially in the left superior parietal cortex and left inferior frontal cortex. These areas are known to be involved in the control of attention and visuo-spatial WM.
Our findings suggest that attenuated cortical activation during working memory tasks may provide an early marker for aMCI.
The issues of timing in antidepressant treatment are of great theoretical and practical relevance, even more so since recent meta-analyses yielded no evidence for a specific mode of action of antidepressants, which, according to the theory of delayed onset of action, is expected to emerge after 2 weeks of therapy. To address the issues of timing on a methodologically sound basis, future trials should adapt a ‘longitudinal’ rather than ‘cross-sectional’ design, standardized with respect to a washout period, baseline and first 2 week assessments. With this in mind, special attention should be paid to parameters which potentially enable the identification of placebo responders, true drug responders and patients at risk of non-improvement. Results and methods of the Zurich meta-analyses may serve as a starting point for further steps in this direction.
The onset of action of antidepressant drugs was investigated on the basis of two independent multicenter, double-blind efficacy studies comparing amitriptyline (n = 120), oxaprotiline (n = 120), imipramine (n = 506) and moclobemide (n = 580) with placebo (n = 189 + 191). The samples consisted of in- and outpatients diagnosed, according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-III criteria, as suffering from major depressive disorder. Measures of efficacy criteria were the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression scale. By using the Sustained Relative Improvement (SRI) criterion, onset of action was determined in each individual patient as that time point in the 30 day observation period at which a 20% baseline score reduction was achieved without subsequent deterioration. Analogously, a response to treatment was defined as a 50% baseline score reduction. As expected, highly significant differences between active drugs and placebo were found with respect to the total number of improvers and responders. Significant differences between treatment modalities surfaced in the percentage rate as well as the time distribution of premature withdrawals. Yet, unexpectedly, among improvers, the time spans to onset of improvement were found to be independent of treatment modality as indicated by virtually identical cumulative percentages of improvers throughout the whole observation period. The picture was essentially the same for the HAM-A and Zung assessments, except for a significant time lag between observer- and self-ratings. In particular, our analyses revealed no evidence for a delayed onset of action under various antidepressants with large biochemical and pharmacological differences in comparison to placebo. Moreover, the early onset of improvement was highly predictive of later outcome: on average, 70% of the patients showing improvement within the first 14 days became responders. Applying survival-analytical methods, we found that differences between active treatments and placebo emerged within the first 5 days and reached a point of maximum distinction around day 14. After this time point, differences between treatment modalities remained constant until the end of the observation period. According to our data, 20–25% of the patients were, on average, ‘true’ drug responders, thus suggesting that the therapeutic qualities of antidepressants do not lie in the suppression of symptoms, but rather are related to their ability to elicit and maintain certain conditions which allow recovery in a subgroup of patients who would otherwise remain non-responders.
In the present open prospective study the effects of quetiapine were investigated in two elderly patients with parkinsonism and psychosis. Treatment induced a marked antipsychotic effect that coincided with an improvement of general motor functioning. These findings support the idea that quetiapine may be preferentially of use in the elderly with parkinson’s disease and psychotic symptoms.
To study in depth the neurotoxic effects of chemotherapy on the cognitive functions. Also, to explore relationships between Neurocognitive function and metabolite ratios of specific brain regions using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS).
Observational analytical case control study which includes thirty patients with diagnosis of leukemia receiving chemotherapy “Cases” & another group of thirty patients with diagnosis of leukemia not receiving chemotherapy at all as “Controls”. All participants were subjected to Semi structured interview, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS).
The means of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) Total, Performance and verbal among the patient group were lower than the control group (P < 0.001). There was statistical significant difference between the two groups regarding Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) in different brain areas. The means of Frontal Cho/NAA, Frontal Cho/Cr, Temporal Cho/NAA, Temporal Cho/Cr, Parieto-Occipital Cho/NAA, Parieto-Occipital Cho/Cr, Basal ganglia Cho/NAA and Basal ganglia Cho/Cr among the patient group were higher than the control group and the means of Temporal NAA/Cr and Parieto-Occipital NAA/Cr among the patient group were lower than the control group.
MR spectroscopy is more sensitive method demonstrating metabolite changes in the brain after chemotherapy treatment of leukemic children in the absence of structural white matter abnormalities at MR imaging. A significant cognitive function difference was detected in leukemic treated cases compared to controls and correlated to the metabolic brain changes detected by MRS.
Cancer patients may encounter psychological distress, change of emotional status, and lowered quality of life. It is predicted that similar changes will be shown during the Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD) of early stomach cancer. The objective of this study is to evaluate changes of emotional status and quality of life over time depending on baseline level of psychological distress.
Ninety-seven patients indicated with ESD who visited National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital in Korea between May 2015 and June 2016 were evaluated. Psychological distress, emotional status, and quality of life were evaluated at the day before ESD. Follow-up evaluations of them were done at the day after ESD, 2 and 10 weeks later.
The group with high psychological distress showed higher female ratio, more depressive and anxiety symptoms than those of the group with low psychological distress. Psychological distress was related to stress level and lowered quality of life. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis showed that significant differences of depression (MADRS), anxiety (HAM-A), level of stress (GARS), and quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30) were sustained over time, but the decreasing tendency of the differences between the groups was also noticed.
The study revealed that patients who feel more psychological distress may experience more depressive and anxiety symptoms, increased level of stress, and lowered quality of life. We recommend screening of patients with early stomach cancer for psychological distress before ESD, which may improve subjective life satisfaction of patients during ESD.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Despite mounting evidence that non-injury-related factors have an important role in recovery from injury; specific variables associated with surgery outcomes are poorly understood. This lack of knowledge complicates efforts to improve the care of work-related hand injury (WRHI) patients. However, substantial research and investigation have still not clarified these underlying relationships, which merit further attention.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) outcome for WRHI patients after the impact of event and to investigate the moderated mediation analysis associated with their decision trust and regret.
A cross sectional study design was used to investigate the impact of event and the associated HRQL in 53 WRHI patients following severe and major hand injury. All consenting patients completed the Impact of Event Scale Revised, the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, Decisional Trust scale, Decisional Regret scale and Short Form-36.
In the result of mediation analysis, patients affected HRQL via decisional trust and decisional regret, respectively. In addition, our data suggest that certain decisional trust and decisional regret (partial) characteristics significantly moderate this association. These findings may aid in the development of clinical interventions to enhance HRQL for WRHI patients. Overall, it is important for clinicians to consider the notion that more decisional trust or less decisional regret may sometimes, but not always, be better.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In the present study, fuzzy uncertainty and reliability analysis of aeroelastic aircraft wings are investigated. The uncertain air speed and structural parameters are represented by fuzzy triangular membership functions. These uncertainties are propagated through the wing model using a fuzzy interval approach, and the uncertain flutter speed is obtained as a fuzzy variable. Further, the reliability of the wing flutter is based on the interference area in the pyramid shape defined by the fuzzy flutter speed and air speed. The ratio between the safe region volume and the total volume of the pyramid gives the reliability value. Two different examples are considered—a typical wing section, and a clean wing—and the results are given for various wind speed conditions. The results show that the approach considered is a low-cost but suitable method to estimate the reliability of the wing flutter speed in the presence of uncertainties.
An artificial diet formulated for continuous rearing of the predator Arma chinensis was inferior to natural prey when evaluated using life history parameters. A transcriptome analysis identified differentially expressed genes in diet-fed and prey-fed A. chinensis that were suggestive of molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritive impact of the artificial diet. Changes in the diet formulation were made based on the transcriptome analysis and tested using life history parameters. The quantity of pig liver, chicken egg, tuna fish, biotin, nicotinamide, vitamin B6, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin C, L-glutamine, and sucrose was reduced, and wheat germ oil, calcium pantothenate and folic acid were increased. Ecuadorian shrimp was added as a partial substitute for tuna fish. Several parameters improved over six generations, including increased egg viability, and decreased egg and adult cannibalism. Additionally, several parameters declined, including longer developmental times for 2nd–5th instars, and decreased nymphal weights. The improvements in life history parameters support the use of transcriptome analyses to help direct formulation improvements. However, the decline in some parameters suggests that additional information, e.g., proteomic data, may be useful as well to maximize diet formulations.
The Groningen field is the largest onshore gas field in Europe. Continuous production since 1963 has led to induced seismicity starting in the early 1990s. Production measures aimed at lowering the level of seismicity have been implemented since 2014. In this paper we start from an empirical relationship between the cumulative number of seismic events and cumulative gas production. We show that a better way to analyse the data is to relate the ratio of activity rate over production rate versus the cumulative production, such that the model parameters and their uncertainty can be determined. This also allows us to make predictions including the confidence intervals.
Using this model, we first performed regression analysis based on the larger seismic catalogue which includes all recorded events with a magnitude of 1.3 and larger, because we consider this value to be the magnitude of completeness since 1995. We have also performed regression analysis based on a smaller seismic catalogue consisting of all events with a magnitude of 1.5 and larger. This was done in order to be able to compare our forecast with forecasts performed by others. Our prediction for 2016, based on the seismic catalogue of all events with a magnitude of M≥1.5 (using only the events recorded before 2016), was 16±8 events. By the end of 2016, 13 such events had been recorded.
We discuss a number of factors which may influence the predictive power of the derived relationship and which require further study. For instance, we consider the delay between production and earthquakes which increases with decreasing reservoir pressure. In addition, the effect of seasonal fluctuation in Groningen production should be considered. Future work can be done to include these effects in the empirical model. We also investigated the challenges related to the applicability of the analysis to sub-regions of the Groningen field.
The processes of trapping, compression, and acceleration of short electron bunches externally injected into the wakefields generated by intense femtosecond laser pulse in a plasma channel are analyzed and optimized. The influence of the laser non-linear dynamics to the longitudinal bunch compression and impact of the beam loading effect (self-action of the bunch charge) to the finite energy and the energy spread of the accelerated electrons are investigated. The limitations to the charge of accelerated electron bunch determined by the requirement of a small width of the electron energy distribution of the bunch are found.
Toxocara canis is an important but neglected zoonotic parasite, and is the causative agent of human toxocariasis. Chondroitin proteoglycans are biological macromolecules, widely distributed in extracellular matrices, with a great diversity of functions in mammals. However, there is limited information regarding chondroitin proteoglycans in nematode parasites. In the present study, a female-enriched chondroitin proteoglycan 2 gene of T. canis (Tc-cpg-2) was cloned and characterized. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed to measure the transcription levels of Tc-cpg-2 among tissues of male and female adult worms. A 485-amino-acid (aa) polypeptide was predicted from a continuous 1458-nuleotide open reading frame and designated as TcCPG2, which contains a 21-aa signal peptide. Conserved domain searching indicated three chitin-binding peritrophin-A (CBM_14) domains in the amino acid sequence of TcCPG2. Multiple alignment with the inferred amino acid sequences of Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum showed that CBM_14 domains were well conserved among these species. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that TcCPG2 was closely related to the sequence of chondroitin proteoglycan 2 of A. suum. Interestingly, a high level of Tc-cpg-2 was detected in female germline tissues, particularly in the oviduct, suggesting potential roles of this gene in reproduction (e.g. oogenesis and embryogenesis) of adult T. canis. The functional roles of Tc-cpg-2 in reproduction and development in this parasite and related parasitic nematodes warrant further functional studies.